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中国植保机械与施药技术研究进展

何雄奎

何雄奎. 中国植保机械与施药技术研究进展[J]. 农药学学报, 2019, 21(5-6): 921-930. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089
引用本文: 何雄奎. 中国植保机械与施药技术研究进展[J]. 农药学学报, 2019, 21(5-6): 921-930. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089
HE Xiongkui. Research and development of crop protection machinery and chemical application technology in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2019, 21(5-6): 921-930. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089
Citation: HE Xiongkui. Research and development of crop protection machinery and chemical application technology in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2019, 21(5-6): 921-930. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089

中国植保机械与施药技术研究进展

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (31761133019);国家现代农业产业体系 (CARS-28-20);国家重点研发计划 (2017YFD0700903)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    何雄奎,男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事植保机械与施药技术研究,E-mail:xiongkui@cau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S25;S49

Research and development of crop protection machinery and chemical application technology in China

  • 摘要: 当今,中国农村存在家庭农场、小规模农业合作组织和国家农场3种经营模式,其植保机械与施药技术同其经营模式密切相关,尽管中国是农药生产与使用大国,全球排名第一,但落后的植保机械和农药使用技术与中国高速发展的现代化的农药生产水平不相适应,带来了农药有效利用率低、农产品中农药残留超标和环境污染等问题,在中国现代化的生产进程中,农药在中国农业与园林上的使用面临许多机遇与挑战。植保机械不同于其他农业机械,涉及农产品、环境与农药使用人员的安全,是一种精确农业作业机具。自2000年以来,中国政府借鉴欧美等发达国家的先进经验,成立专门的检测、管理部门和机构,负责农药的市场准入与使用规范标准的制订;近年来,国家科技部、农业农村部等加大了对植保机械与施药技术领域的投资力度,开发、研制了许多适合中国农业与园林上农药使用的新型机具与技术,并在生产中推广应用;中国政府已把植保机械与施药技术列入中国农民职业教育培训长期计划。
  • 图  1  1997—2007年中国不同农药制剂使用情况 (2011年农业农村部统计数据)

    Figure  1.  Situation of pesticides usage in China during 1997—2007(Statistical data from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs in 2011)

    图  2  中国不同作物上农药制剂使用情况 (2016年农业农村部统计数据)

    Figure  2.  Situation of pesticides usage for different crops in China (Statistical data from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs in 2016)

    图  3  中国不同植保机械市场保有情况(2017年)[17]

    Figure  3.  Market share of plant protection machinery in China (2017)[17]

    图  4  中国农业大学研发的新型高效植保装备

    Figure  4.  New R&D of high-efficiency sprayers prouduced by China Agricultural University

    图  5  北京丰茂公司生产的自走式高地隙喷杆喷雾机 (16 m喷杆)

    Figure  5.  Self-propelled high clearance boom sprayer produced by Beijing Fengmao Company(16 m boom)

    图  6  中国农业机械化研究院研发的自走式高地隙喷杆喷雾机 (12 m喷杆,2 m高地隙)

    Figure  6.  Self-propelled high clearance boom sprayer produced by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences(12 m boom, 2 m adjusted clearance)

    图  7  中国植保无人机市场主要机型 (2019年)

    Figure  7.  Main models of plant protection UAVs in China (2019)

    图  8  多旋翼植保无人机 (6~24旋翼,药箱容积5~20 L)

    Figure  8.  Motor multi-rotor for chemical application(6-24 rotors, 5-20 L tank volume)

    图  9  丹麦哈滴公司生产的自走式“双风”防飘喷杆喷雾机 (喷杆24~44 m,药箱容积5 000 L)

    Figure  9.  Hardi self-propelled double flow anti-drift boom sprayer(24-44 m boom, 5 000 L tank volume)

    图  10  精准变量喷雾自动控制系统

    Figure  10.  Electronic control system for precision variable chemical application

    图  11  宽幅牵引式喷杆喷雾机(18 m喷幅,药箱容积5 000 L)

    Figure  11.  Wide-swath trail boom sprayer (18 m boom, 5 000 L tank volume)

    图  12  高地隙自走式防飘喷杆喷雾机 (24 m喷幅,地隙2 m)

    Figure  12.  Self-propelled high-clearance boom sprayer (24 m boom, 2 m clearance)

    图  13  中国3C认证标志

    Figure  13.  3C certification in China

    图  14  适合于家庭农场生产可进行低容量喷雾的小型机动背负喷杆喷雾机

    Figure  14.  Small boom sprayer used in small householder for low volume chemical application in China

    图  15  国产喷杆喷雾机 (6~18 m)

    Figure  15.  Boom sprayers made in China (6-18 m boom)

    图  16  国产防飘喷杆喷雾机 (12 m喷杆)

    Figure  16.  Anti-drift boom sprayer made in China(12 m boom)

    图  17  国产喷杆喷雾机上应用德国Lechler公司生产的ST120-04喷头与防飘ID120-04喷头进行玉米喷雾作业

    Figure  17.  Chinese boom sprayer working with Lechler ST120-24 and Anti-drift ID120-04 nozzle

    图  18  中国农业大学研制的果园自动对靶精准喷雾机(2003年)

    Figure  18.  Precision automatic orchard target sprayer produced by China Agricultural University in 2003

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-08-21
  • 录用日期:  2019-08-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-09-23
  • 刊出日期:  2019-12-01

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