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植物病原菌抗药性及其抗性治理策略

刘西莉 苗建强 张灿

刘西莉, 苗建强, 张灿. 植物病原菌抗药性及其抗性治理策略[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(5): 921-936. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0109
引用本文: 刘西莉, 苗建强, 张灿. 植物病原菌抗药性及其抗性治理策略[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(5): 921-936. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0109
LIU Xili, MIAO Jianqiang, ZHANG Can. Fungicide resistance and the management strategies[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(5): 921-936. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0109
Citation: LIU Xili, MIAO Jianqiang, ZHANG Can. Fungicide resistance and the management strategies[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(5): 921-936. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0109

植物病原菌抗药性及其抗性治理策略

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0109
基金项目: 农业部公益性农业行业专项 (201303023);国家自然科学基金重点项目 (31730075).
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    刘西莉,seedling@cau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S481.4

Fungicide resistance and the management strategies

Funds: The Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (201303023); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31730075).
  • 摘要: 随着现代高活性的选择性杀菌剂的研发和广泛使用,病原菌的抗药性问题日趋严重,这已成为植物病害化学保护领域最受关注的问题之一。本文阐释了抗药性相关术语的定义,概述了病原菌的抗药性现状,并从自然选择和诱导突变两种学说的角度分析了抗药性产生的原因。进一步分析了抗药性群体流行与病原菌自身特点、杀菌剂类型和作用机制等影响因子密切相关,综述了抗药性风险评估、抗药性机制、抗药性进化以及抗药性常规和分子检测方法等内容。最后,提出了抗药性治理的目标和策略,即根据抗药病原群体形成的主要影响因素,针对性地设计抗药性治理短期和长期策略,特别是需进一步加强对新药剂和新防治对象开展抗药性风险评估、制定抗药性管理策略、建立再评价机制等。综上,明确植物病原菌抗药性发生发展特点并制定科学合理的抗性治理策略,对进一步开展植物病害的科学防控具有重要的参考价值。
  • 图  1  辣椒疫霉菌PsCesA3上4种导致CAA类杀菌剂抗性的点突变[58]

    Figure  1.  Four point mutations of PsCesA3 causing resistance to CAA fungicides in Phytophthora capsici [58]

    图  2  致病疫霉PiORP1上的14种点突变可导致病原菌对OSPBI类杀菌剂的高水平抗性

    Figure  2.  A total of 14 point mutations of PiORP1 causing high-level resistance to OSBPI fungicides in Phytophthora infestans

    图  3  马铃薯晚疫病菌对甲霜灵的抗性进化途径

    (a) RPA190单倍型网络图;(b) 抗性进化途径示意图[66]。SAA和RAAn分别代表来自敏感菌株的氨基酸类型和来自抗性菌株的第n种氨基酸类型。       

    Figure  3.  Evolutionary network of metalaxyl resistance in Phytophthora infestans

    (a) RPA190 haplotype network; (b) schematic evolutionary pathways[66] . SAA: amino acid isoforms from sensitive isolates; RAAn: amino acid isoforms from resistant isolates.

    图  4  大豆疫霉在氟吗啉使用压力下对CAA类杀菌剂的抗性及其CesA3点突变的微进化过程[60]

    Figure  4.  Stepwise evolution of the CesA3 protein and CAA resistance in Phytophthora sojae exposed to flumorph[60]

    图  5  (A) AS-PCR引物在67 ℃时检测大豆疫霉对苯酰菌胺的敏感菌株和抗性突变体情况; (B) 非特异性引物对在敏感菌株和抗性突变体中的扩增情况[99]

    Figure  5.  (A) Amplification results of AS-PCR primers for zoxamide-resistant and -sensitive Phytophthora sojae at 67 ℃; (B) Amplification results of non-specific primers on sensitive strains and resistant mutants[99]

    图  6  快速鉴定辣椒疫霉PcORP1基因核苷酸点突变及其对氟噻唑吡乙酮抗药性的PCR-RFLP方法[15]

    Figure  6.  A PCR-RFLP method for rapid identification of nucleotide point mutations in the PcORP1 gene conferring to oxathiapiprolin resistance in Phytophthora capsici [15]

    图  7  LAMP引物组在68 ℃ 45 min条件下可检测出PcORP1上G700V突变的抗性突变体[103]

    Figure  7.  The LAMP primer set can detect the resistant mutants with G700V mutation in PcORP1 at 68 ℃ for 45 min[103]

    表  1  甲霜灵抗性划分标准

    Table  1.   Metalaxyl-resistance division criteria

    甲霜灵敏感菌株
    metalaxyl-sensitive (MS)
    甲霜灵中抗菌株
    metalaxyl-intermediate (MI)
    甲霜灵高抗菌株
    metalaxyl-resistant (MR)
    文献
    Reference
    10 μg/mL:PG≤10%10 μg/mL:10%<PG<60%10 μg/mL:PG≥60%[96]
    5 μg/mL 下 PG<40% 且 100 μg/mL 下
    PG<40%
    PG<40% at 5 μg/mL and PG<40%
    at 100 μg/mL
    5 μg/mL 下 PG≥40% 且 100 μg/mL 下
    PG<40%
    PG≥40% at 5 μg/mL and PG<40%
    at 100 μg/mL
    5 μg/mL 下 PG≥40% 且 100 μg/mL 下
    PG≥40%
    PG≥40% at 5 μg/mL and PG≥40%
    at 100 μg/mL
    [97]
    注:PG为percent of growth。PG/% =100 × 药剂处理下菌落直径/无药对照菌落直径。
    Note: PG/% = 100 × the diameter of the strain with fungicide treatment/without fungicide treatment.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-09-05
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