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除草剂与安全剂混用对杂草防效及糜子安全性的影响

林瑞嫦 王婉 高小丽

林瑞嫦, 王婉, 高小丽. 除草剂与安全剂混用对杂草防效及糜子安全性的影响[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 352-360. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0159
引用本文: 林瑞嫦, 王婉, 高小丽. 除草剂与安全剂混用对杂草防效及糜子安全性的影响[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 352-360. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0159
LIN Ruichang, WANG Wan, GAO Xiaoli. Effects of the application of herbicides mixed with safeners on weeds control efficacy and the safety to proso millet[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 352-360. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0159
Citation: LIN Ruichang, WANG Wan, GAO Xiaoli. Effects of the application of herbicides mixed with safeners on weeds control efficacy and the safety to proso millet[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 352-360. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0159

除草剂与安全剂混用对杂草防效及糜子安全性的影响

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0159
基金项目: 国家谷子高粱产业技术体系项目 (CARS-06-13.5-A26)和陕西省重点研发计划项目 (2018TSCXL-NY-03-01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    林瑞嫦,1512723575@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    高小丽,gao2123@nwsuaf.edu.cn.

  • 中图分类号: S481.9;S482.4

Effects of the application of herbicides mixed with safeners on weeds control efficacy and the safety to proso millet

Funds: the National Millet and Sorghum Research and Development System(CARS-06-13.5-A26), the Key R&D Program of Shanxi Province(2018TSCXL-NY-03-01)
  • 摘要: 为探讨除草剂与安全剂混用对杂草的防治效果及对糜子安全性的影响,以‘榆糜2号’为试验材料,在糜子三叶期选取两种茎叶型除草剂——阔世玛 (3.6% 二磺 • 甲碘隆水分散粒剂)和锐超麦 (20% 双氟 • 氟氯酯可湿性粉剂)与两种安全剂——芸苔素内酯(brassinolide, BR )和赤霉素(gibbrellic acid, GA)进行混合喷施,同时设置人工除草对照 (CK1)和清水对照 (CK2),测定药害指数、杂草防效、糜子叶片叶绿素相对含量、叶片活性氧代谢、地上生物量与产量的变化。结果表明:BR可完全消除低剂量阔世玛的药害,使高剂量阔世玛的平均药害指数显著下降58.2%;GA可完全消除低剂量锐超麦的药害,使高剂量锐超麦的平均药害指数显著下降81.7%;添加安全剂后药剂的杂草防效降低1.7%~18.0%,但总体防效较好。除草剂与安全剂混用,在一定程度上提高了糜子叶片超氧化物歧化酶 (SOD)活性和叶绿素含量,显著降低了丙二醛 (MDA)含量;与单施除草剂相比,低剂量阔世玛、高剂量阔世玛与BR混合喷施后,糜子叶片SOD活性分别在抽穗后7 d及28 d内明显上升;锐超麦与BR或GA混合喷施后,糜子叶片SOD活性在抽穗后7 d内显著升高。与单施除草剂相比,阔世玛与BR或GA混合喷施,在糜子抽穗后21~28 d时地上生物量显著增加;低剂量锐超麦与BR混用在抽穗后14 d内以及高剂量锐超麦与GA混用在抽穗后28 d内,地上生物量显著增加。除草剂与安全剂混合喷施后显著增加了糜子产量,其中,600 g/hm2 的阔世玛与0.015 g/hm2 的BR混用、100 g/hm2 的锐超麦与14.7 g/hm2 的GA混用的产量最高,分别较CK2增加了26.1%和27.9%,比单施除草剂的分别增产了4.6%和11.6%。研究结果可为糜子田除草剂的安全应用及利用植物生长调节剂缓解除草剂药害提供科学依据。
  • 图  1  除草剂与安全剂混用对糜子叶片SOD活性的影响

    注:柱上不同字母表示不同处理间差异显著 (P < 0.05)。

    Figure  1.  Effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on the SOD activity of proso millet leaves

    Note: Different letters on the column mean significant difference at P < 0.05 level.

    图  2  除草剂与安全剂混用对糜子叶片MDA含量的影响

    注:柱上不同字母表示不同处理间差异显著 (P < 0.05)。

    Figure  2.  Effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on the MDA content of proso millet leaves

    Note: Different letters on the column mean significant difference at P < 0.05 level.

    图  3  除草剂与安全剂混用对糜子地上部生物量的影响

    注:柱上不同字母表示不同处理间差异显著 (P < 0.05)。

    Figure  3.  Effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on the shoot biomass of proso millet

    Note: Different letters on the column mean significant difference at P < 0.05 level.

    表  1  试验处理

    Table  1.   Experimental treatments

    处理编号
    Traetment code
    药剂
    Agent
    有效成分用量
    Dosage of effective
    component, a.i/(g/hm2 )
    T1 阔世玛 Sigma broad 450
    T2 阔世玛 + 芸苔素内酯
    Sigma broad +BR
    450 + 0.015
    T3 阔世玛 + 赤霉素
    Sigma broad + GA
    450 + 14.7
    T4 阔世玛 Sigma broad 600
    T5 阔世玛 + 芸苔素内酯
    Sigma broad + BR
    600 + 0.015
    T6 阔世玛 + 赤霉素
    Sigma broad + GA
    600 + 14.7
    T7 锐超麦 Quelex 86
    T8 锐超麦 + 芸苔素内酯
    Quelex + BR
    86 + 0.015
    T9 锐超麦 + 赤霉素
    Quelex + GA
    86 + 14.7
    T10 锐超麦 Quelex 100
    T11 锐超麦 + 芸苔素内酯
    Quelex + BR
    100 + 0.015
    T12 锐超麦 + 赤霉素
    Quelex + GA
    100 + 14.7
    CK1
    CK2
    注 (Note): BR = brassinolide; GA = gibbrellic acid.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  除草剂与安全剂混用对杂草鲜重防效及药害指数的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on weeds’ fresh weight control efficacy and phytotoxicity index of herbicides

    处理
    Treatment
    杂草鲜重防效
    Weeds’ fresh weight control efficacy/%
    平均药害指数
    Average phytotoxicity index
    14 d21 d28 d35 d42 d
    T173.1 ± 10.1 b66.5 ± 9.3 c72.4 ± 21.6 ab65.7 ± 7.2 b60.4 ± 4.3 b14.63 ± 2.30 f
    T266.4 ± 25.1 c69.1 ± 11.2 c61.5 ± 2.7 b54.4 ± 9.4 c42.9 ± 17.5 d
    T375.9 ± 17.3 b69.5 ± 8.9 c71.3 ± 16.2 b68.7 ± 8.1 b60.2 ± 15.6 b11.18 ± 2.85 g
    T487.1 ± 5.0 a82.3 ± 14.5 a79.5 ± 5.6 a86.6 ± 2.4 a86.0 ± 8.6 a19.79 ± 4.23 e
    T579.2 ± 2.7 b80.1 ± 3.2 a75.5 ± 9.4 ab69.1 ± 7.1 b54.8 ± 9.8 c8.27 ± 1.26 h
    T674.7 ± 9.3 b70.3 ± 7.3 b69.7 ± 10.2 b64.5 ± 4.6 b52.1 ± 21.7 c31.37 ± 4.69 c
    T782.7 ± 3.5 a82.2 ± 6.9 b84.6 ± 2.3 a84.8 ± 0.8 a80.5 ± 4.6 a33.85 ± 4.51 b
    T880.2 ± 7.9 a81.6 ± 9.4 b79.4 ± 9.6 b78.5 ± 2.9 b74.2 ± 0.5 b17.81 ± 3.04 e
    T984.3 ± 10.5 a85.5 ± 12.5 a79.8 ± 7.0 b76.7 ± 13.4 b80.0 ± 2.7 a
    T1088.3 ± 5.4 a87.6 ± 11.0 a84.3 ± 6.1 a84.5 ± 3.5 a83.1 ± 10.0 a50.01 ± 6.20 a
    T1180.4 ± 17.8 a80.2 ± 8.7 b72.1 ± 2.3 b78.3 ± 12.6 b74.6 ± 2.9 b26.43 ± 5.24 d
    T1279.6 ± 3.2 b80.1 ± 10.9 b77.8 ± 9.3 b81.2 ± 25.1 a76.5 ± 1.3 b9.13 ± 0.91 gh
    注:同列不同字母表示不同处理间差异显著 (P < 0.05)。Note: Different letters in the same column values indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 level by Duncan’s multiple range test.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  除草剂与安全剂混用对糜子叶片叶绿素含量的影响

    Table  3.   Effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on the chlorophyll content of proso millet leaves

    处理
    Treatment
    叶绿素含量
    Chlorophyll content/%
    0 d7 d14 d21 d28 d
    CK1 37.2 ± 2.9 a 39.5 ± 4.7 a 41.3 ± 2.3 a 42.4 ± 3.6 a 39.6 ± 0.7 a
    CK2 34.3 ± 0.4 b 37.2 ± 1.2 b 39.1 ± 1.7 b 38.7 ± 2.2 c 35.2 ± 4.0 b
    T1 34.1 ± 3.4 b 35.7 ± 3.7 c 39.1 ± 5.8 b 37.6 ± 1.1 c 37.0 ± 0.9 ab
    T2 36.8 ± 1.4a 38.7 ± 0.8 ab 40.5 ± 0.3 ab 41.5 ± 1.6 ab 39.2 ± 4.9 a
    T3 37.0 ± 3.6 a 40.1 ± 4.5 a 42.5 ± 2.7 a 41.6 ± 2.8 ab 37.3 ± 5.5 ab
    T4 36.8 ± 6.0 a 39.7 ± 3.8 a 40.6 ± 0.2 ab 39.0 ± 2.1 c 37.2 ± 1.5 ab
    T5 34.9 ± 3.1 b 37.1 ± 1.6 b 39.4 ± 3.6 b 38.5 ± 0.7 c 37.9 ± 1.0 ab
    T6 35.1 ± 6.3 b 38.0 ± 0.6 b 41.2 ± 3.9 a 40.1 ± 1.9 b 38.6 ± 4.3 ab
    T7 31.1 ± 2.7 c 34.2 ± 0.3 c 37.9 ± 5.4 bc 38.0 ± 4.1 c 36.3 ± 3.5 b
    T8 34.8 ± 4.3 b 39.1 ± 4.1 a 42.6 ± 5.1 a 43.7 ± 5.6 a 40.2 ± 3.3 a
    T9 34.6 ± 1.9 b 38.7 ± 2.2 a 41.5 ± 1.3 a 44.0 ± 3.2 a 39.6 ± 2.4 a
    T10 29.2 ± 1.1 d 31.5 ± 2.5 d 36.0 ± 2.8 c 36.9 ± 4.9 d 28.8 ± 2.0 d
    T11 32.7 ± 1.8 c 35.7 ± 3.2 c 39.8 ± 4.7 a 40.1 ± 6.0 b 37.6 ± 1.2 b
    T12 33.5 ± 2.6 c 34.4 ± 0.5 c 38.2 ± 4.2 b 39.9 ± 3.9 b 34.3 ± 5.3 c
    注:同列不同字母表示不同处理间差异显著 (P < 0.05)。Note: Different letters in the same column mean significant difference at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  除草剂与安全剂混用对糜子产量的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on the yield of proso millet

    处理
    Treatment
    千粒重
    1000−seed mass/
    g
    产量
    Grain yield/
    (kg/hm2)
    与对照相比
    Compared with control
    With CK1With CK2
    CK19.23 ± 0.0 a2937.0 ± 80.1 a
    CK29.72 ± 0.4 a2164.0 ± 14.6 d
    T19.35 ± 0.3 a2556.0 ± 21.3 c−13.0 18.1
    T29.11 ± 0.2 a2584.0 ± 55.9 c−12.0 19.4
    T39.81 ± 0.2 a2683.0 ± 39.1 bc−8.6 24.0
    T49.39 ± 0.1 a2586.0 ± 40.8 c−11.9 19.5
    T59.61 ± 0.5 a2706.0 ±22.7 b−7.9 26.1
    T69.37 ± 0.1 a2666.0 ± 99.1b c−9.2 23.2
    T79.64 ± 0.2 a2494.0 ± 33.3 c−15.116.2
    T89.47 ± 0.1a2701.0 ± 76.7 b−8.024.8
    T99.43 ± 0.4 a2714.0 ± 20.2 b−7.6 25.4
    T109.60 ± 0.5 a2480.0 ± 54.1 c−15.6 14.6
    T119.29 ± 0.1 a2583.0 ± 12.6 c−12.1 19.4
    T129.35 ± 0.2 a2768.0 ± 27.3 b−5.8 27.9
    注:同列不同字母表示不同处理间差异显著 (P < 0.05) 。Note: Different letters in the same column meant significant difference at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-29
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-25
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-10

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