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植保施药机械喷雾雾滴飘移研究进展

刘晓慧 袁亮亮 石鑫 杜亚辉 杨代斌 袁会珠 闫晓静

刘晓慧, 袁亮亮, 石鑫, 杜亚辉, 杨代斌, 袁会珠, 闫晓静. 植保施药机械喷雾雾滴飘移研究进展[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 232-247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0166
引用本文: 刘晓慧, 袁亮亮, 石鑫, 杜亚辉, 杨代斌, 袁会珠, 闫晓静. 植保施药机械喷雾雾滴飘移研究进展[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 232-247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0166
LIU Xiaohui, YUAN Liangliang, SHI Xin, DU Yahui, YANG Daibin, YUAN Huizhu, YAN Xiaojing. Research progress on spray drift of droplets of plant protection machainery[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 232-247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0166
Citation: LIU Xiaohui, YUAN Liangliang, SHI Xin, DU Yahui, YANG Daibin, YUAN Huizhu, YAN Xiaojing. Research progress on spray drift of droplets of plant protection machainery[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 232-247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0166

植保施药机械喷雾雾滴飘移研究进展

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0166
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(32072468).
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘晓慧,lxh1377639400@163.com

    通讯作者:

    闫晓静,yanxiaojing@caas.cn.

  • 中图分类号: S49

Research progress on spray drift of droplets of plant protection machainery

Funds: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32072468)
  • 摘要: 中国农药产品80%以上通过喷雾方式施用,药液从喷头到靶标作物过程中产生的随风飘移和蒸发飘移是农药造成人畜健康风险、生态环境破坏的重要因素之一。随着航空施药技术的发展,解决或减少喷雾雾滴飘移的问题成为施药技术研究的重点和热点。基于此,本文分别从喷雾雾滴 (尺寸分布、黏度、表面张力、蒸气压、挥发性、密度等)、喷雾模式 (喷头类型、喷雾速度和高度、喷施方法) 和外界条件 (风速、风向、温度、湿度、气流等环境条件和操作人员技术水平等) 等方面系统分析了产生雾滴飘移的主要原因;同时详细综述了采用田间试验、室内试验、计算机模拟及新型测试技术测定喷雾雾滴飘移的优点及局限性,针对植保无人飞机施药,提出应通过室内测定、田间试验与计算机模拟相结合的方式开展雾滴飘移研究。在此基础上分析并总结了从改变雾滴的运动方式、理化性质等方面直接控制和从田间布局间接控制的喷雾雾滴飘移风险控制技术。
  • 图  1  喷雾雾滴飘移影响因素

    Figure  1.  Influencing factors of spray drift

    图  2  不同粒径雾滴在不同飘移距离下的飘移率分布[25]

    Figure  2.  The drift rate distribution of droplet with different particle size under different drift distance[25]

    图  3  雾滴轨迹细节模拟分析[26]

    Figure  3.  Trajectory detail analysis[26]

    图  4  现场试验布局 (指示文本中描述取样设备的位置及类型) [45]

    Figure  4.  Field trial layout(indicating location and type of sampling equipment as described in the text) [45]

    图  5  农药飘移田间测试布置图[46] (Y为喷施方向,A为处理区,B为飘移测量区)

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram for field test of spray drift[46](Y: Spraying direction, A: Processing area, B: Drift sampling area)

    图  6  果园位置及取样装置布局示意图[20]

    Figure  6.  Schematic diagram of orchard location and sampling device layout[20]

    图  7  飞机航线及取样装置布局示意图[47]

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of aircraft route and sampling device layout [47]

    图  8  农药飘移田间测试布置图[48]

    Figure  8.  Schematic diagram for field test of spray drift [48]

    图  9  雾滴飘移收集平台布样示意图[50]

    Figure  9.  Spray drift sampling layout diagram[50]

    图  10  飘移轨道设计示意图

    Figure  10.  Diagram of designed drift orbit

    图  11  喷雾雾滴飘移测定试验台设计图[53]

    Figure  11.  Diagram of the drift test bench experimental setup[53]

    图  12  搭建不同收集线的风洞试验系统原理图[56]

    注:在距离喷头2.0 m、风洞地面0.1 m的位置处间隔0.1 m垂直排列5根收集线(V1 ~ V5),用于采集喷雾云在垂直方向上的的沉积情况。 5根收集线分别距喷头0.5、0.4、0.3、0.2和0.1 m处。5根水平收集线(H1~H5)沿水平方向排列放置在距离喷头的2、3、4 、5和6 m处。

    Figure  12.  Wind tunnel measuring layout chart with different collector lines[56]

    Note: Five collector lines (V1-V5) were positioned in a vertical array to sample vertical profile of airborne spray cloud, at 0.1 m spacing, 2.0 m downwind from static nozzle. This corresponds to nozzle heights of 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1 m. Five horizontal collecting – identified as H1-H5 were placed in a horizontal array at distances of respectively 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 m.

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-11
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-10

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