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山药根结线虫病发生动态及根层施药防治技术研究

李信申 曾荣 方文生 陈建 曹坳程 华菊玲

李信申, 曾荣, 方文生, 陈建, 曹坳程, 华菊玲. 山药根结线虫病发生动态及根层施药防治技术研究[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 332-340. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0186
引用本文: 李信申, 曾荣, 方文生, 陈建, 曹坳程, 华菊玲. 山药根结线虫病发生动态及根层施药防治技术研究[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 332-340. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0186
LI Xinshen, ZENG Rong, FANG Wensheng, CHEN Jian, CAO Aocheng, HUA Juling. Study on occurrence dynamics of yam root-knot nematode disease and its control technology under root irrigation[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 332-340. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0186
Citation: LI Xinshen, ZENG Rong, FANG Wensheng, CHEN Jian, CAO Aocheng, HUA Juling. Study on occurrence dynamics of yam root-knot nematode disease and its control technology under root irrigation[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 332-340. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0186

山药根结线虫病发生动态及根层施药防治技术研究

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0186
基金项目: 江西省现代农业产业技术体系建设项目 (JXARS-19-03);国家重点研发计划 (2017YFD0201606);国家自然科学基金 (31972313).
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李信申,lixinshen0@163.com

    通讯作者:

    曹坳程,caoac@vip.sina.com

    华菊玲,huajl2000@126.com.

  • 中图分类号: S482.5

Study on occurrence dynamics of yam root-knot nematode disease and its control technology under root irrigation

Funds: Jiangxi Agriculture Research System (JXARS-19-03), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0201606), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31972313).
  • 摘要: 根结线虫病是山药生产上的顽固性重发病害,严重制约了山药产业优质高效发展。为制定精准的药剂防治技术,以‘瑞山药’为供试品种,在江西瑞昌和南昌建立试验点,采集、鉴定试验点供试田块山药根结线虫种类,监测土壤中根结线虫2龄幼虫(J2)数量消长动态及山药根结线虫病发生动态,进行病害药剂防治适期研究和施药技术研发。结果表明,试验点供试田块山药根结线虫种类均为南方根结线虫Meloidogyne incognita。山药生长期间,土壤中J2数量呈持续增长态势。山药根系多于5月下旬(山药齐苗期)开始发病;块茎于6月中下旬开始发病,之后块茎病情持续大幅增长。以山药齐苗时及其后60 d左右各施药1次为最佳防治适期,41.7%氟吡菌酰胺悬浮剂(有效成分1426 g/hm2)、30%噻唑膦微囊悬浮剂(有效成分2925 g/hm2) 的防治效果分别达81.56%~83.43%和75.95%~77.16%。采用研发的山药根层均匀施药技术用药2次(30%噻唑膦微囊悬浮剂(有效成分 2 925g/hm2) + 100亿芽孢/克坚强芽孢杆菌可湿性粉剂(有效成分12000 g/hm2)、41.7%氟吡菌酰胺悬浮剂(有效成分1426 g/hm2))的防治效果达81%以上,显著高于前期采用滴灌后期采用根层均匀施药技术处理、2次滴灌施药处理以及2次常规灌根施药处理的防治效果。
  • 图  1  山药根结线虫种类鉴定及致病性测定

    A. 山药根结线虫种类鉴定结果。M:DL2 000 DNA Marker ;−:阴性对照; + :阳性对照 (M. incognita JXMI01);1~45:9个地块DNA样本。B. 根结线虫J2接种山药苗根系发病症状。C. 空白对照。

    Figure  1.  Specie identification and pathogenicity determination of root-knot nematodes in yam

    A. Identification results of the species of root knot nematodes in yam. M: DL2 000 DNA Marker; −: Negative control; + : Positive control (M. incognita JXMI01); 1-45: DNA samples from 9 plots. B. Symptoms of root-knot nematode J2 inoculated seedling root of yam. C. Blank control for pathogenicity determination.

    图  2  山药根结线虫病病情指数增长动态 (2019—2020,南昌和瑞昌)

    Figure  2.  Growth dynamics of disease indexes of yam root-knot nematode disease (2019-2020, Nanchang and Ruichang)

    表  1  2019和2020年施药时间及用药剂量

    Table  1.   Dosages and spraying times of nematicide between 2019 and 2020

    处理
    Treatment
    供试药剂
    Nematicide
    2019 瑞昌市范镇范镇村
    Fanzhen hamlet, Fan town,
    Ruichang city, 2019
    2020 瑞昌市高丰镇乐丰村
    Lefeng hamlet, Gaofeng town,
    Ruichang city, 2020
    2020 南昌县小兰乡涂家村
    Tujia hamlet, Xiaolan village,
    Nanchang county, 2020
    施药日期
    Application time
    施药日期
    Application time
    施药日期
    Application time
    第 1 次
    First
    第 2 次
    Second
    第 1 次
    First
    第 2 次
    second
    第 1 次
    First
    第 2 次
    Second
    A 41.7% 氟吡菌酰胺 SC
    (有效成分1426 g/hm2)
    fluopyram 41.7% SC
    (1 426 g a.i./hm2)
    4 月 26 日
    April 26
    6 月 23 日
    June 23
    4 月 24 日
    April 24
    6 月 26 日
    June 26
    4 月 25 日
    April 25
    6 月 21 日
    June 21
    B 5 月 22 日
    May 22
    5 月 24 日
    May 24
    5 月 22 日
    May 22
    C 5 月 22 日
    May 22
    7 月 29 日
    July 29
    5 月 24 日
    May 24
    7 月 31 日
    July 31
    5 月 22 日
    May 22
    7 月 26 日
    July 26
    D 6 月 23 日
    June 23
    8 月 30 日
    August 30
    6 月 26 日
    June 26
    8 月 29 日
    August 29
    6 月 21 日
    June 21
    8 月 27 日
    August 27
    E 30% 噻唑膦微囊 SC
    (有效成分2925 g/hm2)
    fosthiazate 30% SC
    (2 925 g a.i./hm2
    4 月 26 日
    April 26
    6 月 23 日
    June 23
    4 月 24 日
    April 24
    6 月 26 日
    June 26
    4 月 25 日
    April 25
    6 月 21 日
    June 21
    F 5 月 22 日
    May 22
    5 月 24 日
    May 24
    5 月 22 日
    May 22
    G 5 月 22 日
    May 22
    7 月 29 日
    July 29
    5 月 24 日
    May 24
    7 月 31 日
    July 31
    5 月 22 日
    May 22
    7 月 26 日
    July 26
    H 6 月 23 日
    June 23
    8 月 30 日
    August 30
    6 月 26 日
    June 26
    8 月 29 日
    August 29
    6 月 21 日
    June 21
    8 月 27 日
    August 27
    CK
    注:处理A、处理E第1次施药时间为山药萌芽前,处理B、C、F和G第1次施药时间为山药齐苗期,处理D和H第1次施药时间为山药齐苗后30 d左右。下同。Note: Group A and E were firstly treated with nematicides before the germinating stage. Group B, C, F and G were firstly treated with nematicides at the neatly-grown seedling stage. Group D and H were firstly treated with nematicides at 30 d after the neatly-grown seedling stage. The same as below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  土壤根结线虫2龄幼虫 (J2) 数量消长动态 (2019)

    Table  2.   Population dynamics of the 2nd instar larvae (J2) of yam root-knot nematode in the soils (2019)

    监测地点
    Location
    1 月下旬
    Late January
    4 月中旬
    Mid-April
    6 月下旬
    Late June
    8 月下旬
    Late August
    10 月下旬
    Late October
    瑞昌市范镇范镇村
    Fanzhen hamlet, Fan town, Ruichang city
    65.33±11.37325.00±38.69247.67±44.30446.67±63.58527.33±42.15
    南昌县小兰乡涂家村
    Tujia hamlet, Xiaolan village, Nanchang county
    47.67±13.32207.33±22.40144.67±8.08331.67±22.59363.67±33.56
    注:表中数据为平均值±标准误差。Note: The data in the table are mean±SE.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同施药时间对山药根结线虫病的防治效果

    Table  3.   The control efficacy of different spraying times of nematicides on yam root-knot nematode disease

    处理
    Treatment
    2019·瑞昌市范镇范镇村
    Fanzhen hamlet, Fan town, Ruichang city
    2020·瑞昌市高丰镇乐丰村
    Lefeng hamlet, Gaofeng town, Ruichang city
    2020·南昌县小兰乡涂家村
    Tujia hamlet, Xiaolan village, Nanchang county
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control efficacy/%
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control efficacy/%
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control efficacy%
    A13.45±0.9070.56±1.97 b16.70±1.1370.16±2.01 b13.92±0.7971.17±1.64 b
    B30.26±1.2033.76±2.62 d40.53±1.6027.56±2.86 d32.98±1.2631.68±2.61 d
    C7.70±0.9783.15±2.14 a10.31±0.9781.56±1.72 a8.00±0.2783.43±0.55 a
    D20.13±1.0955.95±2.40 c26.33±0.9852.95±1.75 c21.31±0.9455.85±1.95 c
    E19.57±1.1057.18±2.40 b25.47±1.4355.49±2.56 b19.72±0.8759.15±1.81 b
    F35.01±1.5423.36±3.25 d45.07±1.3119.44±2.33 d37.39±1.3722.53±2.85 d
    G10.84±0.8476.27±1.85 a13.45±1.0875.95±1.92 a11.03±1.1177.16±2.31 a
    H22.76±1.0250.19±2.23 c30.19±1.2046.03±2.11 c23.25±1.1751.83±2.43 c
    CK45.69±1.9155.95±1.3848.27±1.55
    注:表中数据为平均值±标准误差。同列后不同小写字母表示经Duncan氏新复级差法检验在P<0.05水平差异显著。Note: Data in the table are mean±SE.Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences at P<0.05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同施药方法组合对山药根结线虫病的防治效果

    Table  4.   The control efficacy of different spraying methods of nematicides on yam root-knot nematode disease

    处理
    Treatment
    施药方法组合
    Combined application method
    瑞昌市高丰镇乐丰村
    Lefeng hamlet, Gaofeng town, Ruichang city
    南昌县小兰乡涂家村
    Tujia hamlet, Xiaolan village, Nanchang county
    第 1 次
    First
    第 2 次
    Second
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control efficacy/%
    病情指数
    Disease index
    防治效果
    Control efficacy/%
    Ea Ea 9.69±0.58 81.47±1.11 a 7.72±0.68 82.80±1.52 a
    Di Ea 12.87±0.85 75.39±1.62 b 10.12±0.55 77.44±1.23 b
    Di Di 16.92±0.73 67.65±1.40 c 14.01±0.75 68.76±1.68 c
    Wr Wr 29.21±1.28 52.31±0.98 d 23.01±0.57 48.71±1.27 d
    CK 52.31±0.98 44.86±1.29
    注:Ea、Di、Wr分别指根层均匀施药、滴灌施药和灌根施药。“—”表示无数据。表中数据为平均值±标准误差。同列后不同小写字母表示经Duncan氏新复级差法检验在P<0.05水平差异显著。Note: Ea, Di and Wr indicate the treatments of uniform spraying to yam root layers, drip irrigation, and root irrigation, respectively. “—” indicates no data. Data in the table are mean±SE. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences at P<0. 05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test.
    下载: 导出CSV
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    DONG W F. Study on pathogen identification, field occurrence dynamic and chemical control of shortbody nematodes disease on Dioscorea opposita thumb[D]. Baoding: Hebei Agricultural University, 2015.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-26
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-23
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-10

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