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四种作物上登记吡唑醚菌酯单剂的水生生态风险评估

郑豪杰 刘沁雨 孙健 程涵智 曹玲 尹晓辉 吴长兴

郑豪杰, 刘沁雨, 孙健, 程涵智, 曹玲, 尹晓辉, 吴长兴. 四种作物上登记吡唑醚菌酯单剂的水生生态风险评估[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 411-422. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0189
引用本文: 郑豪杰, 刘沁雨, 孙健, 程涵智, 曹玲, 尹晓辉, 吴长兴. 四种作物上登记吡唑醚菌酯单剂的水生生态风险评估[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(2): 411-422. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0189
ZHENG Haojie, LIU Qinyu, SUN Jian, CHENG Hanzhi, CAO Ling, YIN Xiaohui, WU Changxing. Advanced risk assessment for aquatic ecology of single-dose of pyraclostrobin registered on four crops[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 411-422. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0189
Citation: ZHENG Haojie, LIU Qinyu, SUN Jian, CHENG Hanzhi, CAO Ling, YIN Xiaohui, WU Changxing. Advanced risk assessment for aquatic ecology of single-dose of pyraclostrobin registered on four crops[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(2): 411-422. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0189

四种作物上登记吡唑醚菌酯单剂的水生生态风险评估

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0189
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(21007060);浙江省自然科学基金(LY14B070014).
详细信息
    作者简介:

    郑豪杰,2228961324@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    尹晓辉,yinxh@zafu.edu.cn.

  • 中图分类号: S482.2;TQ450.26

Advanced risk assessment for aquatic ecology of single-dose of pyraclostrobin registered on four crops

Funds: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21007060), Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (LY14B070014).
  • 摘要: 通过对中国目前在水稻、小麦、柑橘和马铃薯4种作物上登记的所有吡唑醚菌酯单剂产品进行统计梳理,利用Top-Rice模型及China-Psem模型预测了其在地表水中的暴露量,评估了吡唑醚菌酯对水生生态的高级风险。结果显示:截至2021年5月,中国在4种作物上登记的吡唑醚菌酯单剂产品共25种,分为5种剂型。其中悬浮剂占比最大,为52%;其次为乳油,占20%;微囊悬浮剂、水分散粒剂及可湿性粉剂分别占16%、8%和4%。基于风险评估保守性原则,归纳出适用模型进行分析的不同剂型吡唑醚菌酯单剂产品的施用模式,对其在4种作物上使用后的暴露风险分组进行了分析。结果显示:不同剂型吡唑醚菌酯单剂在不同场景、不同季节的水稻上施用后,其预测环境浓度 (PEC) 范围为0.07~1.24 μg/L;在小麦上施用后,其PEC值范围为0.45 × 10−3~0.60 μg/L;在柑橘上的PEC值范围为0.03~0.76 μg/L;在马铃薯上的PEC值范围为0.01~0.94 μg/L。风险表征结果显示,在现有登记施用条件下,吡唑醚菌酯单剂按推荐方法、推荐剂量及推荐次数在4种作物上施用,其风险均可接受,但鉴于其对水生生物有较高的毒性,对水生生态系统存在一定风险,因此应谨慎控制吡唑醚菌酯在水田的施用剂量和频率。本研究针对其施药模式的分析偏保守,所得评估结果具有一定的不确定性。
  • 图  1  吡唑醚菌酯在水稻上使用的模型预测结果

    注:分组情况同表1

    Figure  1.  The model prediction results of pyraclostrobin used on rice

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 1.

    图  4  吡唑醚菌酯在马铃薯上使用的模型预测结果

    注:分组情况同表4

    Figure  4.  The model prediction results of pyraclostrobin used on potato

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 4.

    图  2  吡唑醚菌酯在小麦上使用的模型预测结果

    注:分组情况同表2

    Figure  2.  The model prediction results of pyraclostrobin used on wheat

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 2.

    图  3  吡唑醚菌酯在柑橘上使用的模型预测结果

    注:分组情况同表3

    Figure  3.  The model prediction results of pyraclostrobin used on citrus

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 3.

    图  5  吡唑醚菌酯在水稻上使用的风险商值

    注:分组情况同表1

    Figure  5.  The risk quotient of pyraclostrobin used on rice

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 1.

    图  8  吡唑醚菌酯在马铃薯上使用的风险商值

    注:分组情况同表4

    Figure  8.  The risk quotient of pyraclostrobin used on potato

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 4.

    图  6  吡唑醚菌酯在小麦上使用的风险商值

    注:分组情况同表2

    Figure  6.  The risk quotient of pyraclostrobin used on wheat

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 2.

    图  7  吡唑醚菌酯在柑橘上使用的风险商值

    注:分组情况同表3

    Figure  7.  The risk quotient of pyraclostrobin used on citrus

    Note: The grouping situation is the same as Table 3.

    表  1  不同剂型吡唑醚菌酯在水稻田的模拟施用量及分组

    Table  1.   Simulation dosage and grouping of different formulations of pyraclostrobin used on rice

    剂型
    Formulation
    施用量范围
    Applied range, a.i./
    (kg/hm2)
    分组 I
    Group I, a.i./
    (kg/hm2)
    分组 II
    Group II, a.i./
    (kg/hm2)
    分组 III
    Group III, a.i./
    (kg/hm2)
    分组 IV
    Group IV, a.i./
    (kg/hm2)
    微囊悬浮剂
    Microcapsule suspension, CS
    0.0756~0.0986 0.0986,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.0986,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.0756,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.0756,施 1 次
    Applied once
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同剂型吡唑醚菌酯在马铃薯田的模拟施用量及分组

    Table  4.   Simulation dosage and grouping of different formulations of pyraclostrobin used on potato

    剂型
    Formulation
    施用量范围
    Applied range, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 I
    Group I, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 II
    Group II, a.i./(kg/hm2))
    分组 III
    Group III, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 IV
    Group IV, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    悬浮剂
    Suspension concentrate, SC
    0.075~0.15 0.15,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.15,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.075,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.075,施 1 次
    Applied once
    微囊悬浮剂
    Microcapsule suspension, CS
    0.09~0.15 0.15,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.15,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.09,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.09,施 1 次
    Applied once
    乳油
    Emulsifiable concentrate, EC
    0.075~0.18 0.18,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.18,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.075,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.075,施 1 次
    Applied once
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同剂型吡唑醚菌酯在小麦田的模拟施用量及分组

    Table  2.   Simulation dosage and grouping of different formulations of pyraclostrobin used on wheat

    剂型
    Formulation
    施用量范围
    Applied range, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 I
    Group I, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 II
    Group II, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 III
    Group III, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 IV
    Group IV, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    悬浮剂
    Suspension concentrate, SC
    0.0765~0.15 0.15,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.15,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.0765,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.0765,施 1 次
    Applied once
    水分散粒剂
    Water dispersible granule, WG
    0.094~0.1125 0.1125,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.1125,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.094,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.094,施 1 次
    Applied once
    乳油
    Emulsifiable concentrate, EC
    0.1125~0.15 0.15,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.15,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.1125,施 2 次
    Applied twice
    0.1125,施 1 次
    Applied once
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同剂型吡唑醚菌酯在柑橘园的模拟施用量及分组

    Table  3.   Simulation dosage and grouping of different formulations of pyraclostrobinl used on citrus

    剂型
    Formulation
    施用量范围
    Applied range, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 I
    Group I, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 II
    Group II, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 III
    Group III, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    分组 IV
    Group IV, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    悬浮剂
    Suspension concentrate, SC
    0.18~0.36 0.36,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.36,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.18,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.18,施 1 次
    Applied once
    乳油
    Emulsifiable concentrate, EC
    0.15~0.225 0.225,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.225,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.15,施 3 次
    Applied three times
    0.15,施 1 次
    Applied once
    可湿性粉剂
    Wettable powders, WP
    0.225~0.45 0.45,施 4 次
    Applied four times
    0.45,施 1 次
    Applied once
    0.225,施 4 次
    Applied four times
    0.225,施 1 次
    Applied once
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  吡唑醚菌酯在Top-Rice模型中的输入值

    Table  5.   Pyraclostrobin input values into the Top-Rice model

    参数        
    Parameter        
    查询参数值
    Query parameter
    模型输入值
    Inputs values of model
    摩尔质量
    Molar mass/(g/mol)
    387.82 387.82
    水中溶解度
    Solubility in water/(mg/L)
    1.9, 20 ℃ 1.9, 20 ℃
    饱和蒸气压
    Saturated vapor pressure/Pa
    2.6 × 10−8, 20 ℃ 2.6 × 10−8, 20 ℃
    土壤有机质吸附常数
    Adsorption constant of soil organic matter, Kom/(L/kg)
    5396.75 5395.59c
    5396.75a
    5394.43b
    土壤好氧降解半衰期
    Aerobic degradation half-life in soil/d, ℃
    40.9 (DT50 lab), 20 ℃ 41.40c, 20 ℃
    41.9 (DT50 lab)a, 20 ℃
    土壤厌氧降解半衰期
    Anaerobic degradation half-life in soil/d
    2, 20 ℃
    2.4, 20 ℃
    3b, 20 ℃
    2.43c, 20 ℃
    池塘水层半衰期
    Half-life in the water layer of water body/d
    1) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.13, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.13, 20 ℃
    2.21d, 20 ℃
    2) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.3, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.3, 20 ℃
    稻田水层半衰期
    Half-life in the water layer of paddy field/d
    1) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.13, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.13, 20 ℃
    2.21d, 20 ℃
    2) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.3, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.3, 20 ℃
    施药时期
    Applied date
    BBCH 20~60 BBCH 20~60e
    施药剂量
    Applied dosage, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    0.0756~0.0986 0.0756~0.0986f
    施药次数
    Applied times
    2 2f
    施药间隔
    Applied interval/d
    7 7f
    施药方式
    Applied mode
    喷雾 Spray 喷雾 Spray
    施药漂移率
    Applied spraydrift/%
    1.16 1.16g
    注:非另外标注,表中数据均来源于EFSA报告[24]a数据来源于PPDB数据库[22]b数据来源于PAN数据库[21]c取几何平均值,其中Kom=Koc/1.724;d根据相关准则[25],池塘水层半衰期取水-沉积物降解试验中农药在水层的消解半衰期,稻田水层半衰期取水-沉积物降解试验中农药在水层的消解半衰期;eBBCH 代表植物生长期标准分级,用于描述植物生长阶段;f取值可根据分组评估情况进行选择,计算时优先计算风险最大的情况 (最大推荐施药剂量、最多推荐使用次数、最短推荐施药间隔);g根据准则[25],当有资料表明施药时水稻株高≥50 cm时,漂移率可取1.16或实测值。Note: Unless otherwise noted, the data in the table were all from the EFSA report[24]. aThe data come from the PPDB database[22]. bThe data come from the PAN database[21]. cThe geometric mean, Kom=Koc/1.724. dAccording to the guidelines[25], pond water layer half-life takes the half-life of the water layer in the water-sediment system and paddy field water layer half-life takes the half-life of the water layer in the water-sediment system). eBBCH represents the standard grading of plant growth period, used to describe the plant growth stage. fThe value can be selected according to the group evaluation situation, and the calculation will give priority to the most risky situation (the maximum recommended dosage, the maximum recommended frequency of application, and the shortest recommended application interval). gAccording to the guidelines[25] when there is data showing that the rice plant height is more than 50 cm when applying the pesticide, the drift rate can be 1.16 or the actual value.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  吡唑醚菌酯在China-Psem模型中的输入值

    Table  6.   Pyraclostrobin input values into the China-Psem model

    参数
    Parameter
    查询参数值
    Query parameter
    模型输入值
    Inputs values of model
    摩尔质量
    Molar mass/(g/mol)
    387.82 387.82
    水中溶解度
    Solubility in water/(mg/L)
    1.9, 20 ℃ 1.9, 20 ℃
    饱和蒸气压
    Saturated vapor pressure/torr
    1.95 × 10−10, 20 ℃ 1.95 × 10−10, 20 ℃
    吸附系数
    Sorption coefficient, Koc/(mL/g)
    9304 9302c
    9304a
    9300b
    土壤好氧降解半衰期
    Aerobic degradation half-life in soil/d
    40.9(DT50 lab), 20 ℃ 41.40c, 20 ℃
    41.9(DT50 lab)a, 20 ℃
    水中光解半衰期
    Aqueous photolysis half-life/d
    1) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.13, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.13, 20 ℃
    2.21c
    2) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.3, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.3, 20 ℃
    水体代谢半衰期
    Water column metabolism
    half-life/d
    1) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.13, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.13, 20 ℃

    2.14c, 20 ℃
    2) 水-沉积物系统中水层降解, 2.3, 20 ℃
    Degradation of the water layer in the water-sediment system, 2.3, 20 ℃
    3) 水体代谢, 2a, 20 ℃
    Water column metabolism half-life, 2a, 20 ℃
    底泥代谢半衰期
    Benthic metabolism half-life/d
    1) 水-沉积物降解试验, 28, 20 ℃
    Water-sediment degradation test, 28, 20 ℃
    25.54c, 20 ℃
    2) 水-沉积物降解试验, 23.3, 20 ℃
    Water-sediment degradation test, 23.3, 20 ℃
    3) 28a, 20 ℃
    水解半衰期
    Hydrolysis half-life/d
    30b
    30
    叶面降解半衰期
    Foliar degradation half-life/d
    5a 5
    施药时期
    Applied date
    小麦 Wheat BBCH 31~59 BBCH 31~59d
    柑橘 Citrus BBCH 31~39 BBCH 31~39d
    马铃薯 Potato BBCH 40~49 BBCH 40~49d
    施药剂量
    Applied dosage, a.i./(kg/hm2)
    小麦 Wheat 0.0765~0.15 0.0765~0.15e
    柑橘 Citrus 0.15~0.45 0.15~0.45e
    马铃薯 Potato 0.075~0.18 0.075~0.18e
    施药次数
    Applied times
    小麦 Wheat 2 2e
    柑橘 Citrus 3~4 3~4e
    马铃薯 Potato 2~3 2~3e
    施药间隔 Applied interval/d 7~10 7~10e
    施药方式 Applied mode 喷雾 Spray 喷雾 Spray
    注:非另外标注,表中数据均来源于EFSA报告[24]a数据来源于PPDB数据库[22]b数据来源于PAN数据库[21]c取几何平均值;dBBCH 表示植物生长期标准分级,用于描述植物生长阶段;e取值可以根据分组评估情况进行选择,计算时优先计算风险最大的情况 (最大推荐施药剂量、最多推荐使用次数、最短推荐施药间隔)。Note: Unless otherwise noted, the data in the table are all from the EFSA report[24]. aThe data comes from the PPDB database[22]. bThe data comes from the PAN database[21]. cThe geometric mean. dBBCH represents the standard grading of plant growth period, used to describe the growth stage of the plant. eThe value can be selected according to the group evaluation situation, and the calculation will give priority to the most risky situation (the maximum recommended dosage, the maximum recommended frequency of application, and the shortest recommended application interval).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  吡唑醚菌酯对水生生态系统的效应分析

    Table  7.   Analysis of the effects of pyraclostrobin on aquatic ecosystem

    毒性试验类型
    Toxicity test
    type
    生物分类
    Biological
    classification
    生物物种
    Biological
    species
    毒性终点
    Toxicity
    endpoint
    毒性效应
    终点值
    EnP/(μg/L)
    评估终点值
    Assessment
    endpoint/(μg/L)
    不确定性因子
    UF
    预测无效应浓度
    PNEC/(μg/L)
    中宇宙
    Mesocosm
    无脊椎动物、
    脊椎动物、
    初级生产者
    Invertebrates,
    vert-ebrates,
    primary
    producer
    浮游动物、
    大型无脊椎动物、
    浮游植物、锦鲤
    Zooplankton,
    macroinvertebrates,
    phyt-oplankton,
    Cyprinus carpio
    NOEC-EROa
    NOEC-ETOa
    13.8b
    0.9b
    3.52 3 1.17
    注:aNOEC-ERO 表示基于生态恢复选项的最大无效应浓度;NOEC-ETO 表示基于生态阈值选项的最大无效应浓度。b毒性资料来源于 EFSA 报告[24]
    Note: aNOEC-ERO represent the maximum no effect concentration based on ecological restoration options. NOEC-ETO represent the maximum no effect concentration based on the ecological threshold option. bToxicity information comes from EFSA report[24].
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-10
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-01

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