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大葱种子丸粒化及性能研究

马英剑 陈罗云 臧吉强 段警博 赵家祥 郭鑫宇 徐勇 吴学民

马英剑, 陈罗云, 臧吉强, 段警博, 赵家祥, 郭鑫宇, 徐勇, 吴学民. 大葱种子丸粒化及性能研究[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(5): 1236-1247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0083
引用本文: 马英剑, 陈罗云, 臧吉强, 段警博, 赵家祥, 郭鑫宇, 徐勇, 吴学民. 大葱种子丸粒化及性能研究[J]. 农药学学报, 2022, 24(5): 1236-1247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0083
MA Yingjian, CHEN Luoyun, ZANG Jiqiang, DUAN Jingbo, ZHAO Jiaxiang, GUO Xinyu, XU Yong, WU Xuemin. Study on seed pelleting and performance of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(5): 1236-1247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0083
Citation: MA Yingjian, CHEN Luoyun, ZANG Jiqiang, DUAN Jingbo, ZHAO Jiaxiang, GUO Xinyu, XU Yong, WU Xuemin. Study on seed pelleting and performance of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)[J]. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 2022, 24(5): 1236-1247. doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0083

大葱种子丸粒化及性能研究

doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0083
详细信息
    作者简介:

    马英剑,mayingjian98@163.com

    陈罗云,1410060313@cau.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    吴学民,wuxuemin@cau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S351.1;TQ450.6

Study on seed pelleting and performance of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

  • 摘要: 种子丸粒化是种子包衣的重要类型,与常规的种子包衣相比,种子丸粒化不仅可以改变种子形状,使种子外形标准化,而且有效成分携带量更大、有效成分间相容性更好。本研究以不规则的大葱种子为对象,考察了不同填料及黏结剂用于种子丸粒化的性能,在获得优化配方的基础上,对所制备丸粒的微观结构进行了表征。结果表明:将硬脂酸镁和滑石粉按质量比1 : 2混合后作为填料,以质量分数为1%的羧甲基纤维素钠水溶液作为黏结剂时,较适合用于大葱种子的丸粒化,所制得的丸粒各项指标合格,符合种子丸粒化的要求。微观结构电镜观察表明,采用不同填料制备的丸粒在微观结构上存在明显差异,填料间的结合越紧密,丸粒的强度越大。添加农药对丸粒化种子的影响评估结果表明,合理添加适宜的农药对种子发芽影响较小。本研究通过宏观性质与微观结构相结合,进一步丰富了种子丸粒化研究基础理论,对提高精量化播种和规范化种植水平具有一定参考价值。
  • 图  1  大葱种子

    Figure  1.  Seeds of welsh onion

    图  2  采用不同组分填料制得的丸粒化种子

    注:填料F1~F12组成见表1

    Figure  2.  Pelleted seeds prepared with different fillers

    Note: The compositions of fillers F1-F12 are shown in Table 1.

    图  3  采用不同黏结剂制得的丸粒化种子

    注:CK为未丸粒化种子。

    Figure  3.  Pelleting seeds prepared with different binders

    Note: CK indicates un-pelleted seeds.

    图  4  以1% CMC溶液作为黏结剂、采用填料F11制备的丸粒的扫描电镜照片

    注:A、B、C为丸粒内部形态,D、E、F为丸粒表面形态。填料F11组成见表1

    Figure  4.  SEM images of pellets prepared with 1% CMC solution as binder and F11 as filler

    Note: A, B, and C are internal images of pellets;D, E, and F are surface images of pellets. The compositions of fillers F11 is shown in Table 1.

    图  5  以1% CMC溶液作为黏结剂、采用填料F5制备的丸粒的扫描电镜照片

    注:A、B、C为丸粒内部形态,D、E、F为丸粒表面形态。填料F5组成见表1

    Figure  5.  SEM images of pellets prepared with 1% CMC solution as binder and F5 as filler

    Note: A, B, and C are internal images of pellets;D, E, and F are surface images of pellets. The compositions of fillers F5 is shown in Table 1.

    图  6  采用填料F11和F5制备的丸粒其孔容和孔面积随孔径的分布情况

    注:填料F11和F5组成见表1

    Figure  6.  Distribution of pore volumes and pore areas of pellets prepared by F11 and F5 with pore sizes

    Note: The compositions of fillers F11 and F5 are shown in Table 1.

    表  1  丸粒化填料组分筛选

    Table  1.   Screening of pelletized filler components

    编号
    Number
    硬脂酸镁
    Magnesium
    stearate/g
    硅藻土
    Diatomaceous
    earth/g
    膨润土
    Bentonite/g
    高岭土
    Kaolin/g
    滑石粉
    Talc/g
    F125.0075.00
    F233.3366.67
    F350.0050.00
    F425.0075.00
    F533.3366.67
    F650.0050.00
    F725.0075.00
    F833.3366.67
    F950.0050.00
    F1025.0075.00
    F1133.3366.67
    F1250.0050.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  由不同组分填料制备的丸粒的物理指标测定结果

    Table  2.   The physical indexes of pellets prepared with different fillers

    填料
    Filler
    抗压强度
    Compression
    strength/N
    有籽率
    Filled rate/
    %
    单籽率
    Rate of single
    seed/%
    F17.7 ± 0.7 d96.00 ± 1.63 b70.67 ± 3.77 f
    F26.5 ± 0.9 e96.67 ± 1.89 ab76.67 ± 2.49 e
    F35.3 ± 0.8 fg98.67 ± 0.94 ab88.00 ± 1.63 cd
    F420.9 ± 2.0 a97.33 ± 0.94 ab46.47 ± 1.89 h
    F516.4 ± 1.6 b97.33 ± 2.49 ab64.00 ± 4.90 g
    F610.6 ± 1.4 c99.33 ± 0.94 ab84.00 ± 1.63 d
    F74.1 ± 0.4 h97.33 ± 0.94 ab90.00 ± 3.27 bcd
    F83.3 ± 0.6 i98.00 ± 1.63 ab86.67 ± 2.49 cd
    F92.7 ± 0.5 i98.67 ± 0.94 ab92.00 ± 4.32 abc
    F105.9 ± 0.9 ef98.67 ± 1.89 ab96.00 ± 1.63 ab
    F115.0 ± 0.8 g100.00 ± 0.00 a97.33 ± 0.94 a
    F124.0 ± 0.5 h99.33 ± 0.94 ab95.33 ± 2.49 ab
    注:填料F1~F12组成见表1;表中数据为平均值 ± 标准差 (n = 3);同列数据后不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P < 0.05)。Note: The compositions of fillers F1-F12 are shown in Table 1. Data in the table are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different lowercase indicated significant differences among the same column data(P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  丸粒化种子发芽率和发芽势测定结果

    Table  3.   The germination rates and germination potentials of pelletized seeds

    填料
    Filler
    发芽率
    Germination rate/%
    发芽势
    Germination potential/%
    CK89.33 ± 2.49 a70.67 ± 3.40 a
    F184.90 ± 0.17 ab66.42 ± 1.98 ab
    F284.66 ± 2.42 ab66.29 ± 1.88 ab
    F383.74 ± 2.53 b66.82 ± 2.74 ab
    F470.89 ± 4.46 d45.78 ± 1.97 d
    F575.11 ± 2.36 cd51.76 ± 0.77 c
    F678.40 ± 1.96 c56.30 ± 2.03 c
    F783.82 ± 0.32 b63.47 ± 3.30 b
    F884.72 ± 1.98 ab64.60 ± 1.67 ab
    F983.74 ± 1.85 b64.36 ± 2.83 b
    F1089.01 ± 1.94 ab68.97 ± 3.63 ab
    F1188.30 ± 1.68 ab68.80 ± 3.42 ab
    F1288.98 ± 2.11 ab68.34 ± 2.44 ab
    注:CK为未丸粒化的种子,填料F1~F12组成见表1;表中数据为平均值 ± 标准差 (n = 3);同列数据后不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P < 0.05)。 Note: CK indicates un-pelleted seeds. The compositions of fillers F1-F12 are shown in Table 1. Data in the table are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different lowercase indicated significant differences among the same column data (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  采用不同黏结剂制备的丸粒化种子的物理指标测定结果

    Table  4.   The physical indexes of pellets prepared with different binders

    黏结剂
    Binder
    抗压强度
    Compression
    strength/N
    有籽率
    Filled rate/%
    单籽率
    Rate of single
    seed/%
    1% 羧甲基纤维素钠
    1% CMC
    5.0 ± 1.0 a 100.00 ± 0.00 a 97.33 ± 1.89 a
    1% 壳聚糖
    1% CS
    4.9 ± 0.8 a 98.67 ± 0.94 a 76.67 ± 4.11 b
    1% 海藻酸钠
    1% SA
    3.4 ± 0.6 c 100.00 ± 0.00 a 92.00 ± 3.27 a
    1% 聚乙烯醇
    1% PVA
    3.6 ± 0.7 c 98.00 ± 1.63 a 77.33 ± 4.71 b
    10% 聚乙二醇6000
    10% PEG 6000
    4.3 ± 0.9 b 98.67 ± 0.94 a 94.00 ± 1.63 a
    注:表中数据为平均值 ± 标准差 (n = 3);同列数据后不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P < 0.05)。Note: Data in the table are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different lowercase indicated significant differences among the same column data (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  采用不同黏结剂制备的丸粒化种子的发芽率和发芽势测定结果

    Table  5.   The germination rates and germination potentials of pellet seeds prepared with different binders

    黏结剂
    Binder
    发芽率
    Germination rate/%
    发芽势
    Germination potential/%
    CK 89.33 ± 2.49 a 70.67 ± 3.40 a
    1% 羧甲基纤维素钠
    1% CMC
    88.31 ± 4.62 a 68.70 ± 5.07 a
    1% 壳聚糖
    1% CS
    63.86 ± 1.40 c 40.79 ± 2.41 c
    1% 海藻酸钠
    1% SA
    86.03 ± 4.45 a 69.92 ± 2.32 a
    1% 聚乙烯醇
    1% PVA
    86.18 ± 2.76 a 67.34 ± 2.46 a
    10% 聚乙二醇6000
    10% PEG 6000
    71.75 ± 2.83 b 49.31 ± 3.19 b
    注:CK为未丸粒化的种子;表中数据为平均值 ± 标准差 (n = 3);同列数据后不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P < 0.05)。Note: CK indicates un-pelleted seeds. Data in the table are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different lowercase indicated significant differences among the same column data (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  采用较优配方制备的丸粒化种子的质量控制指标测定结果

    Table  6.   The quality control indexes of pelleted seeds prepared with a better formula

    质量控制指标
    Quality control index
    测定结果
    Determination result
    外观 Appearance 白色小球,表面较光滑,无明显粗糙感
    White spherical particles with a smooth
    surface and no obvious roughness
    丸粒直径
    Diameter of pellets/mm
    3.39 ± 0.32
    均匀度 Uniformity/% 94.75 ± 0.54
    千粒重
    Thousand-grain weight/g
    29.823 ± 0.861
    增重倍数
    Weight gain multiple
    9.679 ± 0.284
    崩解率 (24 h)
    Cracking rate (24 h) /%
    99.33 ± 0.94
    抗压强度
    Compression strength/N
    5.0 ± 1.0
    有籽率 Filled rate/% 100.00 ± 0.00
    单籽率 Rate of single seed/% 97.33 ± 1.89
    含水量 Water content/% 2.36 ± 0.03
    发芽率 Germination rate/% 88.31 ± 4.62
    发芽势
    Germination potential/%
    68.70 ± 5.07
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  采用填料F11和F5制备的丸粒的孔径分析结果

    Table  7.   The pore size analysis of pellets prepared with filler F11 and F5

    填料
    Filler
    孔隙率
    Porosity/%
    平均孔径
    Average pore
    size/nm
    孔体积中径
    Pore volume medium
    diameter/nm
    孔面积中径
    Pore area medium
    diameter/nm
    总孔面积
    Total pore/
    (m²/g)
    F1133.7598147.151399.5748.688.389
    F518.639248.822879.8316.6111.732
    注:填料F5和F11组成见表1。Note: The compositions of fillers F5 and F11 are shown in Table 1.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  添加不同浓度吡唑醚菌酯后丸粒化种子的发芽情况

    Table  8.   The germination of pelleted seeds with different concentrations of pyraclostrobin

    吡唑醚菌酯浓度
    Conc. of
    pyraclostrobin/(g/kg)
    发芽率
    Germination
    rate/%
    发芽势
    Germination
    potential/%
    CK89.33 ± 2.49 a70.67 ± 3.40 a
    088.31 ± 4.62 a68.70 ± 5.07 a
    188.00 ± 3.46 a68.00 ± 2.00 a
    388.67 ± 4.16 a68.67 ± 4.16 a
    687.33 ± 3.06 a67.33 ± 3.06 a
    注:CK为未丸粒化的种子;表中数据为平均值 ± 标准差 (n = 3);同列数据后不同小写字母表示差异显著 (P < 0.05)。Note: CK indicates un-pelleted seeds. Data in the table are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). Different lowercase indicated significant differences among the same column data (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-16
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-08-30
  • 刊出日期:  2022-10-10

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