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Discovery of fungicide flubeneteram
ZENG Lingqiang, LUO Ruitong, CHEN Qiong, HAO Gefei, ZHU Xiaolei, YANG Guangfu
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0028
[Abstract](24) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 2961KB](5)
Abstract:
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is one of the important fungicide targets. However, many plant pathogens showed medium and even high resistance to commercial fungicides targeting upon SDH. So, it is very urgent to design new novel inhibitor for SDH. Pharmacophore-linked fragment virtualscreening (PFVS) is a high-throughput drug discovery approach independent of biophysical screening techniques and flubeneteram, a novel fungicide candidate targeting SDH, was successfully obtained by PFVS. Here, the development process of the fungicide flubeneteram was analyzed in detail, including the principle of PFVS, the discovery of lead compounds, the modification of substituents and the study on fungicidal activity. The discovery process of flubeneteram would provide novel ideas and methods for pesticide researchers.
Synthesis and herbicidal activity of acifluorfen analogues
ZHAO Zhuoran, LI Jiakang, LI Zhanbin, CHEN Yu, HUANG Yuqian, LI Wenqi, JI Zhiqin, WEI Shaopeng
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0019
[Abstract](44) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 792KB](5)
Abstract:
Three series of twenty new acifluorfen analogues were designed and synthesized using methyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate and acifluorfen as starting materials. Their structures were characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The herbicidal activities of the compounds were determined by methods of petri dish and greenhouse potted. The results showed that the herbicidal activity of compound III-02 [6-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl 5-(2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate] against monocotyledonous weeds was significantly higher than that of acifluorfen, and its EC50 values were 2.03, 0.93 μg/mL and 1.49, 0.52 μg/mL against the roots and stems of Echinochloa crusgalli and Digitaria sanguinalis, respectively. Additionally, at the dosage of 100 g a.i./ha, the efficacy of compound III -02 against monocotyledonous weeds E. crusgalli, S. sanguinalis and Setaria viridis was above 85%, which was significantly higher than that of acifluorfen, and a 100% control effect on broadleafs Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus and Abutilon theophrasti. The structure-activity relationship showed that the herbicidal activity of 2-NO2 benzoyl derivatives was significantly higher than that of 2-OCH3 analogues, and the herbicidal activity of acifluorfen benzoate derivatives against monocotyledons was significantly higher than that of benzamide derivatives.
Preparation and in vitro antifungal activity of Notopterygium extract microemulsion
ZHANG Zhirui, ZHAO Qing, LI Zonglin, KOU Junjie, LI Jiao, XU Fengbo, LI Qingshan
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0006
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 751KB](1)
Abstract:
Hot ethanol-water solution was used to extract the active ingredients from the Notopterygium root, and the microemulsion of the extracted active ingredient was prepared. The physical properties such as stability were tested to evaluate and determine the optimal formulation of the microemulsion. The microemulsion is composed of 15% Notopterygium extract (notopterol 0.34%), 9% cyclohexanone, 16% HMK-2100, 10% ethanol, 49.9% water, and 0.1% AF1506. The results showed that the performances of the prepared Notopterygium extract microemulsion were in line with microemulsion standards. Meanwhile, 5% Notopterygium extract microemulsion (notopterol 0.11%) and 30% Notopterygium extract emulsion (notopterol 0.68%) were prepared. The mycelial growth rate method was used to evaluate the effects of different formulations on the four plant pathogens of Rhizoctonia cerealis, Phytophthora capsici, Pyricularia grisea and Rhizoctonia solani. The results showed that 15% Notopterygium extract microemulsion had significant fungi growth inhibition activities. After 500 times of dilution (Notopterygium extract 300 mg/L and notopterol 6.75 mg/L), the growth inhibition rates to P. grisea and R. solani were over 90%. Application performance tests showed that Notopterygium extract microemulsion had excellent spreading and wetting abilities on the leaf surface.
Resistance monitoring of the field populations of Laodelphax striatellus to twelve insecticides in Henan Province
CAI Yubiao, DOU Tao, GAO Futao, YIN Xinming, LIU Xiangyang, REN Yingdang
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0191
[Abstract](16) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 601KB](4)
Abstract:
In order to clarify the insecticide resistance status in the field populations of the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) from Henan Province, the resistances to 12 commonly used insecticides in seven field populations of L. striatellus collected from Xinxiang, Puyang, Kaifeng, Zhumadian, and Xinyang during 2020 to 2021 were detected by rice seedling dipping method. The results showed that the field populations of L. striatellus have developed medium-level resistance to buprofezin [resistance ratio (RR)=14.9-91.1]. Furthermore, the field populations produced low to medium-level resistance to pymetrozine (RR=6.91-16.7) and chlorpyrifos (RR=8.48-70.0) and were susceptible to medium-level resistance to triazophos (RR=1.29-11.1). In addition, all field populations of L. striatellus were susceptible or low-level resistance to thiamethoxam (RR=0.95-5.19) and lambda-cyhalothrin (RR=3.31-7.24), and relatively susceptible to imidacloprid (RR=0.89-3.92), acetamiprid (RR=1.11-2.33), nitenpyram (RR=0.16-0.64), dinotefuran (RR=1.87-3.86), isoprocarb (RR=0.47-1.37) and flonicamid (RR=1.63-4.33), respectively. The results shed light on the sustainable control of L. striatellus field population and scientific use of insecticides in Henan province.
Construction and application of pesticide fast searching system for crop diseases and pests control
QIU Rongzhou, CHEN Shaoping, ZHAO Jian, CHI Meixiang, LIN Jianwei, HUANG Ting, WENG Qiyong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0026
[Abstract](12) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 2966KB](2)
Abstract:
A cross-platform pesticide fast searching system for crop diseases and pests control was developed for helping farmers understand and master the knowledge of pest control, facilitating farmers to obtain the key characteristics and scientific control methods of crop diseases and pests through mobile phones quickly and conveniently, and providing online crop protection technology services for farmers. The fast searching system was developed using RESTful web service architecture, HTML5 mobile web development technology, and taking the Wechat platform as user access portal, which realized the functions of pesticide searching, plant diseases and pests images searching, and data management of backstage. The detailed information of pesticides could be searched by pesticide name and crop diseases or pests name for the relationships between pesticides and crop diseases or pests were established. The control technologies of 30 important pest and disease in Fujian Province, which including vegetables, fruit trees, rice, tea and tobacco, were contained in the constructed database. The preliminary application results showed that the system displayed satisfying practicability and stability, which indicating the system was suitable for popularization and application in rural grassroots. The pesticide fast searching system based on Wechat developed in the study could satisfy the demands of the popularization and application of new crop protection technologies, and providing farmers with simple and convenient online plant protection technology services. The research had great significants on improving the ability of farmers in safe application of pesticides and scientific prevention and control of crop diseases and pests, and promoting the efficiency and reduction of pesticides.
Optimization of Bacillus subtilis HMB19198 fermentation medium
QU Yuanhang, GUO Qinggang, LI Shezeng, XUAN Lifeng, ZHANG Xiaoyun, MA Ping
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0009
[Abstract](10) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 1974KB](0)
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Bacillus subtilis strain HMB19198 is a promising biocontrol agent for tomato gray mold, and the fengycin, a kind of lipopeptide, played an important role in strain HMB19198 suppressing against tomato gray mold. With the purpose of improving the fermentation level of strain HMB19198, the basic medium benefit for the sporulation of strain HMB19198 was selected from eight kinds of industrial medium. The carbon and nitrogen sources suitable for sporulation of strain HMB19198 was screened by single factor test. Results showed that soluble corn starch and molasses as carbon sources, peanut cake powder and peptone as nitrogen sources were conducive to the sporulation of strain HMB19198. The Plackett-Burman analysis and response surface analysis were used to optimize the composition of soluble corn starch, molasses, extracts from peanut cake powder, peptone, K2HPO4·3H2O and MgSO4·7H2O. The optimized medium included 67.0 g/L soluble corn starch, 14.1 g/L molasses, 41.6 g/L peanut cake powder, 10g/L peptone, 9.2 g/L K2HPO4·3H2O and 1.5 g/L MgSO4·7H2O. Cultured in the optimized medium, the spore concentration of strain HMB19198 could get 6.92 × 109 /mL, and increased the spore concentration by 107% as well as shortened the fermentation cycle by 40%, compared to that in the basic medium. In addition, the fengycin production could be increased by 39.4% when cultured in the optimized medium.
Preparation of metolachlor + bensulfuron-methyl 20% effervescent tablets and its control efficacy on weeds in paddy field
YAN Weiyao, YANG Jinghan, MA Yingjian, QIN Dunzhong, CHEN Wang, CHEN Zhiyang, FENG Jianguo
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0010
[Abstract](65) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 762KB](7)
Abstract:
In order to improve the labor-saving degree of chemical control of weeds in rice fields and reduce the cost of weed control, metolachlor + bensulfuron-methyl 20% effervescent tablets were prepared by the dry pressing process. The type and dosage of adjuvants in the formulation were selected by the single variable method, and the field efficacy of the prepared effervescent tablets was evaluated. The results showed that the optimal formulation (mass fraction) of metolachlor + bensulfuron-methyl 20% effervescent tablets was: 16% metolachlor, 4% bensulfuron-methyl, 18% organobentonite, 9% white carbon black, 20% tartaric acid, 20% sodium bicarbonate, 6% EFW, 4% G202 and 3% magnesium stearate. The effervescent tablets could effectively control weeds in the rice field in the dosage range of 120-180 g/hm2 of active ingredients, and its control efficacy was significantly better than that of single agent, which was equivalent to that of the registered wettable powder. The duration of control efficacy was more than 40 days. The effervescent tablets prepared in the study had smooth surface, no dust, and remarkable control efficacy against weeds in the rice field, which was worth to be promoted as a convenient and time- and labor-saving pesticide formulation.
High performance anion exchange-integral pulse method for detection of free glucosamine in amino-oligosaccharins pesticides
CHEN Weiyao, WU Guoquan, LI Bin, GAO Fanqin
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0011
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 908KB](0)
Abstract:
A high performance anion exchange-integral pulse method was established to determine the content of free glucosamine in amino-oligosaccharin technical concentrates and aqueous solution. Using the DionexAminoTrap Column and DionexCarboPac PA100 anion exchange column as the separation column, the target free glucosamine was eluted with 17 mmol/L sodium hydroxide, and the chitosan oligosaccharide was flushed by 200 mmol/L sodium hydroxide. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the total analysis time was 30 min. Under the optimal separation conditions, the interference of chitosan oligosaccharides on glucosamine could be eliminated. The detection limits of glucosamine reached 0.01 mg/L (S/N=3), the calibration curve ranged from 0.02 to 10 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients was 0.999 9. For the analysis of commercially available amino-oligosaccharin technical concentrates and aqueous solution at 3 replicates, the relative standard deviation was less than 1.9%, and the spiked recoveries were between 90%-99%, which indicated that the established method was accurate and reliable. Therefore, this method could be used for the detection of free glucosamine in amino-oligosaccharin technical concentrates and aqueous solution, and could provide method for the quality evaluation of the amino-oligosaccharin pesticides.
Meta-analysis of food processing on pesticide residues in rice
WANG Yingxin, DUAN Jinmiao, GAO Qingchao, ZHANG Zhiyong, LIANG Ying
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0002
[Abstract](8) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 631KB](1)
Abstract:
The response ratio of processing on pesticide residue in rice was obtained by meta-analysis in order to provide processing factors for food safety risk assessment. Through literature search, data collection and meta-analysis, the response ratio and related parameters of different processing methods on pesticide residues in rice were obtained. In the single processing method, the response ratio of hulling, milling, polishing, soaking, washing once, washing twice, washing three times, cooking and pressured cooking were 0.376、0.310、0.212、0.518、0.450、0.338、0.162、0.356 and 0.144, respectively. The hulling, milling and polishing could reduce the pesticide residues effectively with response ratios lower than 0.400. With the increase of washing times, the effect on pesticide residue increased, while soaking has the poorest effect on pesticide residues. The pressured cooking has the best effect on reducing pesticide residue level. The response ratios of combined method basically coincide with the multiplication of single methods. The response ratios obtained can be used as processing factors in food safety risk assessment to improve the accuracy of risk assessment results. It is also useful for setting maximum residue limits and guiding consumers to eat safely.
Fesibility of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles for controling tobacco bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and the effect of adjuvant Beidatong
LIU Xiaohui, GUO Jian, HOU Qiuqiang, LIU Chunming, DU Yahui, SHI Xin, YUAN Liangliang, HUANG Kun, YANG Daibin, YUAN Huizhu, YAN Xiaojing
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0169
[Abstract](22) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 2968KB](7)
Abstract:
In order to evaluate the feasibility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for tobacco protection against diseases and insects, the field control efficacy of emamectin benzoate 50 g/kg water-dispersible granules (WG) spraying by multi-rotor UAV and knapsack electrostatic sprayer against tobacco bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera ) were compared and the effect of adjuvant Beidatong on control efficacy was analyzed. The results showed that the control efficacy of abamectin benzoate 50 g/kg WG applied by UAV against H. armigera was gradually increased from 1 day to 7 days after application. Seven days after application, the control efficacies were 71.31%, 64.00%, and 93.93% at dosages 60, 75, and 90 g/hm2, respectively. However, the control efficacy of UAV could be improved from 64.00% to 92.59% at a dosage of 75 g/hm2 by the addition of a spray adjuvant. The control efficacy of application by knapsack electrostatic sprayer was 94.30% at a dosage of 75 g/hm2. These results indicated that the knapsack sprayer has better control efficacy on H. armigera than the multi-rotor plant protection UAV at the same application dosage (75 g/hm2). UAV spraying could achieve a similar efficacy as the knapsack sprayer by the addition of 10 ml/L adjuvant Beidatong or a 20% dosage increase. The research results provide support and reference for further improving the application technology of UAVs to control tobacco pests and speeding up the promoted application of UAVs in tobacco plant protection.
Resistance status of Leptochloa chinensis to three acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors in rice fields in Shanghai and involved ACCase gene mutations
YUAN Guohui, TIAN Zhihui, GAO Yuan, SHEN Guohui
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0012
[Abstract](16) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 591KB](3)
Abstract:
In order to determine the resistance level and the potential resistance mechanism of Leptochloa chinensis to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides, 51 populations of L. chinensis were collected from the rice fields in Shanghai. Whole-plant single dose experiments were conducted to investigate the resistance level of different populations to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides such as cyhalofop-butyl at 105 a.i./(g/hm2), metamifop at 120 a.i./(g/hm2) and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl at 62.5 a.i./(g/hm2) in the greenhouse, and the target gene of resistant populations were detected. The results showed that of the 51 populations tested, eight populations were found to be resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, four populations resistant to metamifop, and six populations resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl; six, five and two populations were found to be developing resistance to cyhalofop-butyl, metamifop and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, respectively. Sequencing results showed that nine of fifteen resistant popualtions were found four different kinds of mutation at ACCase sequence included Trp (TGG)-1999-Ser (TCG), Trp (TGG)-1999-Cys (TGT), Trp (TGG)-2027-Ser (TCG) and Trp (TGG)-2027-Cys (TGT/TGC), but there were no mutations in other populations. Besides, five populations had mutant frequencies higher than 60%. Our results indicated that L. chinensis was extensively resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in some rice fields in Shanghai, and the mutation in the ACCase gene was one of main reasons for the resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in L. chinensis populations.
Recent research progress on flupyradifurone and its analogues
SU Yanhao, XU Leichuan, ZHAO Yu, ZHANG Qian, LI Yihao, WANG Ming’an
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0004
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](23) [PDF 1671KB](21)
Abstract:
Flupyradifurone, a new butenolide insecticide developed by Bayer Cropscience AG, has excellent insecticidal activity against sucking pests. Compared with the existing commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, it has a unique mode of action and is low toxicity to bees. Therefore, it has been one of the hot research topics in the agrochemical field since it was launched in 2014. The creation process, bioactivity and resistance, mechanism of action, metabolic residue, effects on non-target organisms such as bees and structural modification of fluopyradifurone were summarized in this review.
Asymmetric synthesis of (R)-2,6-dimethylhept-5-en-1-ol, sex pheromone of acarid mites, Tyreophagus sp. (Astigmata: Acaridae)
WANG Lifeng, YANG Yuxiong, YUAN Chaonan, WANG Xueyang, BIAN Qinghua, WANG Min, ZHONG Jiangchun
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0005
[Abstract](15) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 1441KB](3)
Abstract:
Many acrid mites are significant pests that damage crops and grain warehouses, and (R)-2,6-dimethylhept-5-en-1-ol is the main component of the sex pheromone of the acrid mite Tyreophagus sp. Here, the chiral tertiary carbon center of this sex pheromone was constructed by Evans chiral auxiliary method for the first time, and the asymmetric synthesis of this pheromone was completed by a six-step reaction of Wittig coupling, LiOH hydrolysis, methylation, and NaBH4 reduction using methyl glutarate as the raw material.
Optimization of inhibition conditions of Trichoderma atroviride T2 fermentation liquid protein extract TraT2A and its field control efficacy for lily leaf spot disease
CHEN Ying’e, LIANG Qiaolan, WEI Liexin, TONG Fayu, WANG Dong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0031
[Abstract](16) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 584KB](1)
Abstract:
In order to improve the inhibition activity and light stability of the protein extract TraT2A from the fermentation broth of Trichoderma atrovirid T2 strain, the ultraviolet protective agents (ascorbic acid, humic acid) and the auxiliary agent (IE-08, SP-4821A and SP-4821B) were screened, the inhibition condition of TraT2A for Alternaria alternata were optimized through the colony growth rate test, and the field control effect on lily leaf spot disease was determined. The results showed that TraT2A had a good inhibitory effect on A.alternata at 200.00 mg/mL and the inhibitory rate was 72.12%. With the prolongation of the UV illumination time, the inhibition activity of TraT2A gradually decreases. The addition of 5.00 mg/mL humic acid had an excellent UV protection effect on TraT2A and its inhibition rate (69.01%) increased by 39.64% compared with that without a UV protection agent (29.37%). The addition of 0.17 mg/mL adjuvant of SP-4821A increased the inhibition activity of TraT2A most significantly and the inhibition rate (95.13%) increased by 25.97% compared with the TraT2A control (69.16%). According to the optimized formula, 200.00 × 103 mg TraT2A (the mass concentration was 200.00 mg/mL), 5.00 × 103 mg humic acid (the mass concentration was 5.00 mg/mL), 0.17 × 103 mg SP-4821A (the mass concentration was 0.17 mg/mL) and 794.83 mL sterilized water was mixed and the field control efficacy of the mixture was tested on lily leaf spot disease, the result showed that its field control effect was 80.37%. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the further development of TraT2A preparations for the control of lily diseases.
Establishment of sensitivity baseline of Phytophthora infestans to valifenalate and risk assessment of resistance
YANG Po, WU Jie, LU Fen, ZHAO Jianjiang, BI Qiuyan, HAN Xiuying, LI Yang, WANG Wenqiao
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0171
[Abstract](53) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 848KB](6)
Abstract:
In order to establish the baseline sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary to valifenalate, the sensitivities to valifenalate of 105 P.infestans isolates collected from Hebei, Heilongjiang, Guizhou, Sichuan and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where valifenalate had never been used,were determined by mycelial growth rate method. To clarify the difficulty degree of acquisition of valifenalate-resistant mutants in P. infestans, UV mutagensis and fungicide adaptation test were conducted. In order to clarify the patterns of cross-resistance between valifenalate and fungicides regularly used for late blight control, the sensitivities to valifenalate and six fungicides of eight resistant mutants and their six parent sensitive strains were tested. The results showed that the EC50 values ranged from 0.0594 mg/L to 0.159 mg/L and the mean EC50 value of 105 isolates was (0.102±0.024) mg/L. The frequency of sensitivity to valifenalate distributed as a unimodal curve, and there was no subgroup with sensitivity declined, so the mean EC50 value could be regarded as the sensitivity baseline to valifenalate in P. infestans. Four mutants resistant to valifenalate with the resistance factors ranging from 3.2 to 14.9 were obtained through UV-irradiating mycelia of strains sensitive to valifenalate and the resistance mutagenesis frequency was 0.54%. Two mutants resistant with the resistance factors of 8.1 and 8.2 were obtained through UV-irradiating sporangia of strains sensitive to valifenalate and the resistance mutagenesis frequency was 1.33 × 10−7. Two mutants resistant to valifenalate with the resistance factors from 3.1 and 9.4 were obtained through 11 generation subcultures. No cross resistance relationship existed between valifenalate and azoxystrobin or fluopicolide or metalaxyl or cymoxanil, but cross resistance existed between valifenalate and mandipropamid or dimethomorph. It was suggested that P. infestans could have a low to moderate resistance risk to valifenalate. Therefore, valifenalate should be used for late blight in mixtures or rotation with other fungicides of different action mechanisms in production to avoid or delay the buildup of valifenalate resistance in P. infestans.
Detecting the combined toxicity of 30 pesticides and veterinary drugs and their binary and ternary combinations toward CYP3A4 based on fluorescence probe technology
ZHU Xinyue, CHEN Lisen, HE Shengui, ZHAO Xin, CHENG Linli, CUI Jingnan
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0013
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 1834KB](0)
Abstract:
The mixed use of multiple pesticides and veterinary drugs in agricultural production is becoming more and more common, resulting in the uncertainty of combined toxicity effect, which poses a serious threat to human health. Based on the principle of enzyme inhibition method, the activity of CYP3A4 was directly detected by fluorescent probe NEN (N-ethyl-1,8-naphthalene dicarboxyimide) , and a broad-spectrum method for screening the combined toxicity effect of mixed pesticides and veterinary drugs was established. Then taking 30 commonly used pesticides and veterinary drugs and their typical 23 binary and 26 ternary combinations as the research object, the combined toxicity effects of pesticide and veterinary drug mixed pollutants on CYP3A4 were detected. The standard mass concentration was determined according to the maximum residue limit of pesticides and veterinary drugs specified in the national food safety standard. The results showed that the pesticide and veterinary drug combinations with synergistic effects on the combined toxicity of CYP3A4 under three mass concentration gradients were carbofuran + carbendazim, carbofuran + imidacloprid, acetamiprid + dimethomorph, imidacloprid + carbendazim, cypermethrin + acetamiprid + dimethomorph, carbofuran + acetamiprid + carbendazim, imidacloprid + acetamiprid + carbendazim, imidacloprid + acetamiprid + dimethomorph, chlorpyrifos + acetamiprid + carbendazim and bifenthrin + acetamiprid + carbendazim. When the inhibition rate of single pesticide or veterinary drug on enzyme activity was high, the combined toxicity effect after mixing with other pesticides and veterinary drugs was antagonistic, while when the inhibition rate of single pesticide or veterinary drug on enzyme activity was less than 2%, the combined toxicity effect after mixing with others was uncertain. Pesticide and veterinary drug combinations often had strong synergistic effect on the combined toxicity of CYP3A4 at low concentration, with the increase of concentration, the combined toxicity effect changes from synergy to antagonism. By analyzing the structure-activity relationship between pesticides and veterinary drugs and CYP3A4, it could be seen that the number of aromatic chlorine groups was positively correlated with the inhibition degree on enzyme activity of CYP3A4. Pesticides and veterinary drugs containing three aromatic chlorine groups or more had the most significant inhibition effect on enzyme activity of CYP3A4, with an inhibition rate of more than 30%, such as chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, prochloraz; pesticides and veterinary drugs containing two aromatic chlorine or "strong electron withdrawing group + one aromatic chlorine" group had a strong inhibitory effect on enzyme activity of CYP3A4, with an inhibition rate of more than 18%, such as difenoconazole, pyridaben and iprodione. Pesticides and veterinary drugs with carbamate bonds acted alone on CYP3A4 had little or no toxicity, while they showed strong synergistic effect when mixed with other pesticides and veterinary drugs. The detection method established in this study provides a new idea for broad-spectrum screening of combined toxicity of mixed pesticides and veterinary drugs, and the detection results can provide a basis for further risk assessment scheme design of pesticide and veterinary drug mixtures at the cellular and animal levels.
Hydrolysis and photolysis characteristics of pinoxaden
OU Jiang, LIU Kailin, TENG Yuting, ZENG Lihong, ZHANG Guiqun, NIE Chunlin, OU Xiaoming
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0020
[Abstract](74) [FullText HTML](55) [PDF 1032KB](6)
Abstract:
The hydrolytic and photolytic characteristics of pinoxaden under different conditions were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in laboratory conditions. The results showed that in the buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0, the hydrolysis half-lives of pinoxaden were 347, 40.8 and 1.08 h at 25 ℃, and were 57.8, 11.6 and 0.498 h at 50 ℃, respectively, which classified it as easily hydrolysis type. The hydrolysis of pinoxaden was rapid under alkaline conditions, but slowly under acidic conditions. The hydrolytic rate of pinoxaden increased with the increase of temperature, and the temperature effect coefficients ranged from 2.18 to 6.00. Under the irradiation of xenon simulated sunlight, the photo-degradation half-lives of pinoxaden in the buffer solutions were decreased with the increase of pH value, and the shortest was 10.0 h at pH of 8.0. The photolytic rates of pinoxaden in different natural water showed the following sequence: pond water > paddy water > river water > pure water, and the half-lives were 5.17, 7.79, 8.56 and 38.5 h, respectively. The main hydrolysis product of pinoxaden was M2 (8-(2,6-diethyl-4-methyl-phenyl)-9-hydroxy-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-pyrazolo[1,2-d][1,4,5]oxadiazepin-7-one), and the main degradation mechanism was the hydrolyzation of the ester group. M2 was further degraded under light conditions, indicating that photolysis was an important degradation way of pinoxaden. The results provided a scientific reference for the environmental behavior and safety assessment of pinoxaden in water environment.
Influence of ABA functional analog natenpac on grape coloring and quality improvement
WANG Tao, DING Shanshan, HAN Xiaoqiang, ZHANG Li, TANG Xianjun, LI Xiaobin, LIANG Gengsheng, GAO Zhicheng, LI Jiaqi, QIN Zhaohai
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0007
[Abstract](32) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 7925KB](4)
Abstract:
Grape coloring is an essential stage in the grape ripening process, which has a very important influence on the quality of grape berries. In this paper, nine-year-old Frey grape varieties were used as the research object and the influences of a novel ABA functional analog, natenpac, on grape coloring and quality improvement in the field were studied. At the initial stage of fruit coloring, foliar spraying, root irrigation, and fruit soaking were carried out with 2, 5, and 10 mg/L natenpac, respectively, and clean water treatment as the blank control. By comparing the apparent changes, such as average transverse diameter, color, and single fruit weight, and internal quality changes, such as soluble solids, anthocyanin, and soluble sugar contents, the optimal application mode and concentration were determined. The results showed that natenpac could make Frey grape finish coloring 7-10 days earlier than the control by foliar spraying or root soaking modes, and contributed to significant increases in soluble solid content and coloring degree, and slight increases in the transverse diameter and single fruit weight of berries. The three treatment modes showed a great difference in efficacy. Root irrigation and foliar spraying were better than fruit soaking and 2 mg/L of foliar spraying was the best. This study clarified the best application mode and concentration of natenpac to Frey grape and provided the basis for guiding the field application of natenpac in grape coloring.
Residue and chronic dietary risk assessment of penthiopyrad, trifloxystrobin and their metabolites in tomato by QuEChES-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
LI Ruotong, HU Jiye
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0183
[Abstract](41) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 664KB](4)
Abstract:
A method was established for the simultaneous determination of penthiopyrad, its main metabolite 1-methyl-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (PAM), trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in tomato. The samples were extracted with acetic acid and acetonitrile, cleaned-up with anhydrous MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA) and GCB, and detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The linearities of penthiopyrad, PAM, trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid ranged from 0.025 to 2 mg/L, with R2≥ 0.9992. The average recoveries of the four compounds in tomato at different spiked levels were 88%-97%, with the relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 3.9%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the analytes were all 0.05 mg/kg. The supervised residue trials were carried out in 12 farm regions in China according to "Guideline for the Testing of Pesticide Residues in Crops". The 30% suspension concentrate of penthiopyrad and trifloxystrobin was sprayed twice with an interval of 7 days at the recommended dosage of 270 g a.i./ha at the early stage of Botrytis cinerea in tomato, and the recommended pre-harvest interval was 5 days. On the 5th and 7th day after the last application, the residues of penthiopyrad in tomato samples were below 0.26 mg/kg, and the residues of trifloxystrobin were below 0.33 mg/kg, which were lower than the corresponding MRLs set in China. The dietary risk assessment was carried out according to the results of residue field trials, dietary structure and toxicological data. The results showed that the national estimated daily intake (NEDI) of penthiopyrad and trifloxystrobin were 0.1382 mg and 0.2645 mg, respectively. The dietary risk quotient (RQ) of penthiopyrad and trifloxystrobin in tomato were less than 100%, which indicated that the application of the 30% suspension concentrate of penthiopyrad and trifloxystrobin under recommended Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions would not pose an unacceptable risk to human health.
Rapid screening of 180 pesticide residues in Fructus Citri by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry
CHEN Ting, ZHANG Wen, LIU Guangrui, ZHU Renyuan, YAN Jun, WANG Xingzhi, QI Pengfei, CHEN Min
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0188
[Abstract](39) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 923KB](3)
Abstract:
A rapid screening method for multi-residue of 180 pesticides in Fructus Citri was established by QuEChERS combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). An accurate mass database and a high-resolution fragment ion spectrum library were established by optimizing the sample preparation and purification, as well as the search parameters such as the accurate mass extraction window, the retention time window and the absolute peak filter. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative results of the proposed screening method were verified. The results showed that the linear relationship of the 180 pesticides in Fructus Citri was good within the mass concentration range of 0.005-1 mg/L (r>0.99), and the screening detection limits (SDLs) of 96.6% of the pesticides were below 0.05 mg/kg. The average recoveries at the three spiked levels (0.02, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) were 58%-129%, 68%-131% and 66%-132%, respectively, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.7%-18% (n=5). Using TOF-MS first-level accurate mass-to-charge ratio screening combined with the confirmation of high-resolution fragment mass spectrometry, the proposed method significantly improved the accuracy of rapid screening for multiple pesticide residues, efficiently reduced the false positive rate, and has universal applicability in the daily monitoring of pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials of Fructus Citri.
Determination of 30 organophosphorus pesticides in eight famous herbals in Zhejiang(Zhebawei) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
YU Miao, YAO Fang, ZHANG Han, WANG Jiao, QI Peipei, WANG Xinquan
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0184
[Abstract](114) [FullText HTML](38) [PDF 815KB](6)
Abstract:
A method for simultaneous determination of 30 organophosphorus pesticides in eight famous herbals in Zhejiang (called Zhebawei) was established. Considering the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine and difficulty in purification, nano-ZrO2 and mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 were selected as dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup adsorbents. The cleanup process was systematically optimized with Corydalis as the representative matrix, and combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The results showed that using 30 mg nano-ZrO2 and 50 mg MCM-41 as d-SPE cleanup adsorbents, the linearity for the pesticides was good in the concentration range of 0.001-0.25 mg/L and the correlation coefficient (r) was greater than 0.99, except for cyanofenphos, trichlorphon (0.002-0.25 mg/L) and dichlorvos (0.005-0.25 mg/L). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 mg/kg except for dichlorvos (0.050 mg/kg). Except for fenthion and dichlorvos, the average recoveries of the pesticides in the eight herbal samples ranged from 64 % to 125 % at spiking level of 0.05 mg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.05 % to 11 %. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible, and has good applicability in the eight herbals in Zhejiang, which makes up for the lack of detection technology of organophosphorus pesticide residues in eight herbals of Zhejiang.
cover
2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](92) [FullText HTML](26) [PDF 4656KB](27)
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2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](115) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 778KB](45)
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2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](97) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 542KB](26)
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Editorial
2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](134) [FullText HTML](53) [PDF 397KB](59)
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contents
2022, 24(2): 1-4.  
[Abstract](60) [FullText HTML](15) [PDF 431KB](8)
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MONOGRAPHS AND REVIEWS
Research progress on the syntheses of aggregation pheromones of flea beetles
WANG Lifeng, ZHONG Jiangchun, LIU Fengmao, BIAN Qinghua, WANG Min
2022, 24(2): 203-216.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0181
[Abstract](192) [FullText HTML](51) [PDF 2219KB](45)
Abstract:
Flea beetles are common pests of vegetables, fruits, grains and other crops. The aggregation pheromone components of flea beetles, including fourteen sesquiterpenes and six unsaturated aldehydes, can be used for mass trapping and monitoring. It is a promising technology for control of flea beetles. The syntheses of the sesquiterpenes were described according to the strategies for the construction of chiral center, which consisted of chiral sources, enantioinduction and asymmetric catalytic reactions; whereas the preparations of unsaturated aldehydes were reviewed on basis of the approaches for constructing carbon-carbon double bonds, including aldol condensation, Wittig coupling, Wittig-Horner coupling and acetylenic ester isomerization. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed, as well as the prospects for the synthesis of aggregation pheromones of flea beetles.
Advances in antimicrobial substances from genus Xenorhabdus
HAN Yunfei, TA Yongquan, WANG Yong, FENG Juntao, WANG Yonghong
2022, 24(2): 217-231.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0192
[Abstract](237) [FullText HTML](81) [PDF 1368KB](35)
Abstract:
Xenorhabdus is a kind of symbiotic bacteria living in the intestinal tract of entomopathogenic nematodes and produces a variety of secondary metabolites with different biological activities, some of which have the potential to develop new pesticides. Antimicrobial compounds found in the secondary metabolites from Xenorhabdus genus in recent decades and representative strains that produced antimicrobial secondary metabolites were summarized in this paper. The mechanisms of some antimicrobial compounds produced by Xenorhabdus were discussed and the inhibition of protein synthesis was an important way for some compounds against microorganisms. The methods of exploring new compounds and improving the yield of specific antimicrobial compounds from secondary metabolites of genus Xenorhabdus were summarized based on their biosynthesis pathway and related regulatory factors. The research prospects of Xenorhabdus were generalized and some countermeasures were put forward in this article in view of the current problems in the research and application of Xenorhabdus and its secondary metabolites. This paper provides a reference for the reasonable and effective application of antimicrobial secondary metabolites of Xenorhabdus, which is of great significance in promoting the utilization of Xenorhabdus and its secondary metabolites.
Research progress on spray drift of droplets of plant protection machainery
LIU Xiaohui, YUAN Liangliang, SHI Xin, DU Yahui, YANG Daibin, YUAN Huizhu, YAN Xiaojing
2022, 24(2): 232-247.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0166
[Abstract](181) [FullText HTML](76) [PDF 1875KB](50)
Abstract:
More than 80% of pesticide formulations are used in plant protection by spraying in China. The spraying drift, including wind drift and evaporation drift, caused by the spraying liquid from the nozzle to the target crop is one of the important factors that pesticides cause human and animal health risks and ecological damage. With the pesticide application technology system shifting from grounded-based application to ground-based and aviation application in China, spray drift has become the focus and hot spot of application technology research. In order to better understand the spray drift, including spray droplets (size distribution, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure, volatility, density, etc.), spray pattern(nozzle type, spray speed and height, spray method) and external conditions(wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity, airflow and operator technical level, etc.) are systematically analyzed in this article. Meanwhile, the advantages and shortcomings of spray drift determination methods like field tests, indoor tests, computer simulation and new testing techniques are reviewed in detail, and proposed that the study of spray drift for plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle should be carried out combining indoor determination, field tests and computer simulation together. Furthermore, the risk control techniques of spray drift are analyzed and summarized, which are directly controlled by changing the movement mode and physicochemical properties of spray droplets and indirectly controlled by field layout.
RESEARCH REPORTS
Design, synthesis and biological activities of novel diamide derivatives containing bioactive cyclopropanecarboxylic acid fragments
CHEN Ruijia, FENG Tingting, WANG Gang'ao, XU Xiaoyong, LI Zhong
2022, 24(2): 248-259.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0160
[Abstract](162) [FullText HTML](38) [PDF 1327KB](48)
Abstract:
In order to discover insecticide leads with novel structures, a variety of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid-containing active fragments were introduced into diamide insecticides. 21 novel diamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). And their biological activities against Aphis craccivora, Mythimna separate, Fusarium graminearum and Blumeria graminis were evaluated. The results suggestted that most of our anthranilic diamides had low fungicidal activities on the two fungi and good insecticidal activities against the two insect targets. And at the concentration of 500 mg/L, 10h exhibited a mortality rate of 90% against A. craccivora, while 10k possessed a rate of 100% against M. separate. Both two derivatives could be further optimized as potential insecticide leads.
Synthesis and insecticidal activity of tenuazonic acid and derivatives
YOU Weichen, LIU Xiaoyu, LIU Xiankun, CHAI Yuanqing, WANG Xiaofei, LYU Pei, HUA Rimao
2022, 24(2): 260-271.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0001
[Abstract](140) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 903KB](29)
Abstract:
In order to find tetramic acids with high insecticidal activity, the natural product tenuazonic acid (TeA) was used as lead compound, 26 tetramic acid derivatives 4a-4s , 5a-5g , 7a and 8a were designed and synthesized using acyl Meldrum's acid as acylation reagent with different substituted groups of tetramic acids at 3-position and 5-position, in which fourteen target compounds were not reported in the literature. The target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS. The preliminary insecticidal activity eveluation showed that the target compounds had good insecticidal activity against wheat aphids (Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)) with systemic action at 100 μg/mL concentration for 72 h. Compounds 5d and 7a showed excellent insecticidal activities with the lethal rate of 100% in 48 h at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, which was higher than that of spirotetramat. 5d and 7a could be used as lead compounds for further research. The residues of 4e , 5c , 7a and 8a in wheat plants showed that the target compounds could be well absorbed. The study may provide a guideline of further studies on for structure-insecticidal activity relationships of tetramic acid derivatives.
Synthesis and nematicidal activity of natural nematicidal lead compound Waltherione A analogues
ZHANG Xi, XIE Shishuang, HU Zhan, ZHANG Beijing, LIU Qifeng, DING Xiaofan, XIE Jia, SHAO Yu, SUN Ranfeng
2022, 24(2): 272-279.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0150
[Abstract](160) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 7056KB](44)
Abstract:
To find out the key pharmacores of Waltherione A which is a natural nematicidal lead alkaloid and simplify its structure, twelve Waltherione A analogues were synthesized from 2,3-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde through intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, and connected with the bridge ring with different substituents. Among them, eight compounds have not been reported in the literature. The structures of all target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR,13C NMR and HRMS. The nematicidal activity of the target compounds against Meloidogyne incognita was determined by the immersion method. The results showed that the nematicidal activity of all the target compounds was lower than that of Waltherione A. The 72-h mortality of compound A-12 against the 2nd instar larvae of M. incognita was 69.7% at 200 μg/mL, and the nematicidal activity of compound A-12 was higher in comparation with other compounds. The results showed that the aromatic substituents connected with bridge ring had a positive effect on the activity of the compound, which provides a direction for further structural optimization.
Design, synthesis and fungicidal activities of Thiasporine A analogues
CHEN Shunshun, ZHU Xiang, SHI Jinchao, WANG Meimei, HU Ciyin, LIAO Can, ZHANG Yong, LI Junkai
2022, 24(2): 280-288.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0172
[Abstract](104) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 621KB](23)
Abstract:
Thiasporine A was a natural product containing phenylthiazole ring isolated from the marine-derived Actinomycetospora chlora SNC-032 and showed cytotoxicity against the lung cancer cell line H2122. Thiasporine A ( 4o ) and 29 Thiasporine A analogues ( 3a - 3o , 4a - 4n ) were synthesized using substituted benzonitriles as starting material, among which 24 analogues have not been reported in literature. Their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS spectra. The fungicidal activities of Thiasporine A and its analogues were tested. The results indicated that most of Thiasporine A analogues exhibited certain fungicidal activities. Compounds 3e and 3i were found to have the inhibition rates of 84.5% and 84.4% against Rhizoctonia solani at a concentration of 200 μmol/L, with the EC50 values of 17.3 μmol/L and 21.9 μmol/L, respectively. Compounds 4b and 4j displayed the inhibition rate of 100% against Selerotium rolfsii at 200 μmol/L. compound 4b demonstrated an inhibition rate of 83.3% against Phytophthora parasitica at 200 μmol/L, which was better than the commercial thifluzamide. The inhibition rates of compound 3g against five fungi were all higher than 70% at 200 μmol/L.
Studies on the antimicrobial constituents from the roots of Oxytropis hirta Bunge
YE Shengwei, HU Jiajun, HU Zilong, ZHAO Long, HAO Nan, TIAN Xiangrong
2022, 24(2): 289-297.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0158
[Abstract](95) [FullText HTML](43) [PDF 678KB](18)
Abstract:
The antifungal and antibacterial chemical constituents in agriculture were identified from the roots of Oxytropis hirta Bunge. The 75% ethanol extract from the roots of O. hirta was further extracted by petroleum ether, ethy acetate and n-butanol, respectively. The most active ethy acetate phase was isolated and identifed for its chemcial constituents by mordern column chromatography and spectroscopy techniques, and the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluted. The results showed that the ethyl acetate phase had the best antimicrobial activity. It showed antifugal activities against Thanatephorus cucumeris and Botrytis cinerea with inhibitory rates of 57.2% and 55.4% at 1 × 103 mg/L, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidae with the antibacterial circle diameter of 21.8 mm and 19.0 mm, respectively. Six compounds were isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate phase of O. hirta as β-amyrin ( 1 ), 3-oxo-azukisapogenol ( 2 ), 5α-stigmast-9(11)-en-3β-ol ( 3 ), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione ( 4 ), 3β,22β,24-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene ( 5 ) and azukisapogenol ( 6 ). The results of antibacterial activity showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of compound 1 against Staphylococcus aureus was 50 mg/L, and the MIC of compound 1 against P. solanacearum, P. syringae and Bacilus subtilis was 100 mg/L. The EC50 value of compound 6 against T. cucumeris and B. cinerea were 117.4 mg/L and 86.2 mg/L, respectively. The ethyl acetate phase of O. hirta showed better inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Triterpenoids are one of the main active constituents and have the potential to be further developed as fungicides.
Sensitivity of Monilinia fructicola to boscalid and cross-resistance to four succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors
DONG Yi, LI Agen, MAO Chengxin, ZHANG Yanting, ZHANG Chuanqing, LIU Yahui
2022, 24(2): 298-305.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0180
[Abstract](85) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 957KB](22)
Abstract:
The sensitivity of Monilinia fructicola to boscalid was determined by the mycelial growth rate method. Meanwhile, the study investigated the biological characteristics of isolates with different sensitivities, the correlation between the amino acid mutations of SDHB protein with resistance to boscalid, and the cross-resistance of M. fructicola between boscalid and other 3 tested succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs), Y12196, penflufen and fluopyram. The results showed that boscalid had a good inhibitory activity and therapeutic effect against M. fructicola. However, M. fructicola has developed a certain degree of resistance, and the resistant isolates have comparable fitness with the sensitive ones. The sequence analysis of SDHB gene showed that the amino acid point mutations of M. fructicola SDHB subunits were not significantly correlated with the resistance to boscalid. The cross-resistance studies indicated that there was cross-resistance between boscalid and the other three SDHIs, Y12196, penflufen, and fluopyram. In order to retard the occurrence and exacerbation of resistance, the rational mixes or rotations of boscalid with other kinds of fungicides rather than SDHIs are recommended during the prevention and control of cherry brown rot disease.
Screening and evaluation of smoke generators to control gray mold of Chinese chives
GAO Haojie, ZHANG Lanyun, LI Tongtong, ZHAO Shifeng, LI Beixing, MU Wei, LIU Feng
2022, 24(2): 315-325.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0176
[Abstract](100) [FullText HTML](33) [PDF 1794KB](20)
Abstract:
Effective and safe smoke generators were urgently needed to control gray mold of Chinese chives. In this study, the feasibility of processing nine commonly used fungicides into smoke generator was evaluated from five aspects: inhibition activity of active compounds, toxicity of smoke, smoke formation rate, safety, and field control. The inhibition activity of active compounds results showed that EC50 values of fluazinam, fludioxonil, and pyrisoxazole against mycelial growth were 0.13, 0.05, and 0.12 mg/L; EC50 values of pyrazolamide, fluopyram, and boscalid against conidial germination were 0.84, 0.68, and 1.16 mg/L. In a 0.108 m3 containment device, the toxicity of the smoke of fungicides at the same dose of 0.01 g was tested, the results showed that with the same dose of 0.01 g, the mycelial growth were completely inhibited by smoked fludioxonil, while the conidial germination was completely inhibited by smoked pyrazolamide, fluopyram, and boscalid, the inhibition rates of registered procymidone smoke generator against mycelial growth and conidial germination were 54.39% and 43.27%. The smoking rate of fludioxonil, boscalid, and fluopyram were 85.93%, 91.35%, and 82.86%, which conform to the criterion of active ingredient for fabricating smoke generators. Seven days after fungicide smokes treatment, there was no significant difference in plant height and stem diameter of Chinese chives compared with the untreated control. The results of the field trials in 2019 and 2020 showed that the curative efficacy of active ingredient of 120 g/hm2 fludioxonil smoke generator to gray mold were 72.31% and 79.78%, and the curative efficacy of active ingredient of 375 g/hm2 boscalid smoke generator to gray mold were 81.17% and 83.81%. Their curative efficacy was all higher than the procymidone smoke generator at the highest registered dose (the active ingredient of 450 g/hm2), in the treatment of grey mold of Chinese chives (59.86% and 63.71%). At the above doses, the preventative efficacies of three smoke generators to control gray mold were all above 90%. The dissipation dynamics of curves of the fludioxonil and boscalid were both in line with the first-order kinetic equation. The both half-lives of fludioxonil and boscalid in Chinese chives plant were 3-4 d. It is recommended that fludioxonil and boscalid are processed into smoke generators and registered for the prevention and control of gray mold of Chinese chives.
Field efficacy of the combination of famoxadone and metalaxyl-M against Plasmopara viticola and the residue dynamics of the two fungicides in grape
XIA Lijuan, QING Shangfei, SU Zhengchuan, YANG Huiling
2022, 24(2): 326-331.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0175
[Abstract](123) [FullText HTML](70) [PDF 579KB](25)
Abstract:
To clarify the feasibility and safety of using the combination of famoxadone and metalaxyl-M against Plasmopara viticola in grape, the indoor co-toxicity test, field control efficacy test and residue behavior test were carried out. The results showed that the type of joint effect was synergistic on P. viticola when the ratio of famoxadone and metalaxyl-M was 1 : 1, with the EC50 value was 2.52 mg/L and the co-toxicity coefficient was 154.53. The best field control efficacy of 30% famoxadone + metalaxyl-M SC (at the mass ratio of 1 : 1) against P. viticola was 83.9% after 3 times of application at the dosage of 120-200 mg a.i./kg with interval of 7 d. The control effect of 30% famoxadone + metalaxyl-M SC at the dosage of 200 mg a.i./kg was significantly better than that of 68.75% famoxadone + mancozeb WG at the dosage of 687.5 mg a.i./kg, and the control effect of 30% famoxadone + metalaxyl-M SC at the dosage of 120 and 150 mg a.i./kg was significantly better than 68% metalaxyl-M + mancozeb WG at the dosage of 1360 mg a.i./kg. At the spiking levels of 0.1, 0.5 ,1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg, the average recoveries of famoxadone and metalaxyl-M in grape were 91%-107% and 92%-107%, respectively, with RSD less than 5.7%. The dissipation of famoxadone and metalaxyl-M in grape fitted to the first order kinetics and the half-lives were 8.9-12.8 d and 7.4-10.0 d, respectively, indicating that they were easily dissipated pesticides. The results suggested that the formulation of 30% famoxadone + metalaxyl-M SC (at the mass ratio of 1 : 1) could be an effective fungicide for controlling P. viticola, with the characteristics of high efficiency, low residual, easily degraded, and safe for use, and have certain future developmental value.
Study on occurrence dynamics of yam root-knot nematode disease and its control technology under root irrigation
LI Xinshen, ZENG Rong, FANG Wensheng, CHEN Jian, CAO Aocheng, HUA Juling
2022, 24(2): 332-340.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0186
[Abstract](81) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 785KB](15)
Abstract:
Root-knot nematode disease is a stubborn and easily recurring disease in yam production and severely restricts the high-quality development of the yam industry. To develop an accurate control technology, this study focused on Ruichang yam and established test sites in Ruichang and Nanchang of Jiangxi Province for the collection and identification of the different root-knot nematodes. Population dynamics of the 2nd instar larvae (J2) of root-knot nematode were observed in the soils and the dynamics of nematode infection on yam were monitored in the fields for the determination of the appropriate control periods and the development of effective spraying technology in the fields. The result indicated the nematode isolates in the soils were southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The J2 populations showed a continuous increase during the whole growth period of yam in the soils. Yam root infections by root-knot nematode occurred mostly in late May (seedling stage) and sick yam tubers appeared in mid-to-late June, then, the severity of the sick yam tubers continued to increase significantly. The critical periods for root-knot nematode control were at the neatly-grown seedling stage and the following 60 days and one application for each. The control efficacy of 41.7% fluopyram suspension (active ingredient amount 1426 g/hm2) and 30% thiazophos microcapsule suspension (active ingredient amount 2925 g/hm2) were 81.56%-83.43% and 75.95%-77.16%, respectively. The application of 30% thiazophos microcapsule suspension (active ingredient amount 2925 g/hm2) combined with 10 billion spores/gram of Bacillus firmus wettable powder (active ingredient amount 12000 g/hm2), and 41.7% fluopyram suspension (active ingredient amount 1426 g/hm2) with newly generated twice uniform root irrigation technology improved the control efficacy to more than 81%, which is significantly higher than the combination of drip irrigation at the early stage and root irrigation at the later stage, two drip irrigation and two conventional root irrigation.
Effects of imazethapyr on the physiological characteristics and yield components of foxtail millet
HE Xiaoyong, SUN Dasheng, YANG Xueping, YUAN Xiangyang, SONG Xi’e, YAO Xiang, GUO Pingyi, YANG Xuefang
2022, 24(2): 341-351.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0178
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML](38) [PDF 1087KB](12)
Abstract:
To explore the effects of imazethapyr on the physiological characteristics and yield components of imazethapyr-resistant and conventional foxtail millet varieties and the resistance mechanism, an imazethapyr-resistant variety Jigu35 and 7 conventional varieties Jigu38, Jigu41, Jingu21, Jingu59, Changnong44, Longgu39, and Zhonggu9 were used to compare the physiological characteristics and yield components in response to imazethapyr by pot and filed experiments. The results of the pot experiment showed that for conventional varieties, the aboveground fresh weight, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and total chlorophyll in leaves were significantly decreased after active ingredient 93.5 g (a.i.)/hm2 imazethapyr treatment by 21.60%-72.83%, 45.20%-92.12%, 18.10%-93.36%, 42.58%-84.21%, and 45.73%-92.38%, respectively. The apparent photosynthetic electron transfer rate and maximum photochemical yield of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased by 20.4%-37.0% and 6.9%-24.8%, respectively. The non-photochemical quenching coefficient and the quantum yield of regulatory energy dissipation significantly increased by 101.0%-322.1% and 113.7%-319.7%, respectively, while the imazethapyr-resistant variety Jigu35 were not changed significantly. The catalase (CAT) activity of Jigu35 was significantly increased by 52.48%, while it was decreased by 19.70%-56.58% for conventional foxtail millet varieties. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) of conventional varieties were significantly increased by 16.70%-68.80%, but had no significant effect on resistant variety Jigu35. The acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity of the resistant variety Jigu35 was slightly changed after the treatment of imazethapyr. The ALS activity of the conventional variety Jigu38, it was significantly decreased from the 13th day of treatment compared with the control. The field experiment showed that spraying imazethapyr at the seedling stage significantly reduced the ear length, ear diameter, ear weight, ear grain weight, and theoretical yield of conventional varieties. Different from conventional varieties, the ear weight, ear grain weight, and theoretical yield of resistant variety Jigu35 were significantly increased by 7.8%-8.6%. This indicated that the Jigu35 has a strong resistance to imazethapyr by maintaining the stability of ALS activity, increasing CAT activity, enhancing the removal of H2O2, and reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation.
Effects of the application of herbicides mixed with safeners on weeds control efficacy and the safety to proso millet
LIN Ruichang, WANG Wan, GAO Xiaoli
2022, 24(2): 352-360.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0159
[Abstract](92) [FullText HTML](53) [PDF 1487KB](28)
Abstract:
To evaluate the effect of herbicides mixed with safeners on weeds control efficacy and the safety to proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) at high- and low- dosages of herbicides, Sigma broad (mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 3.6% WG) and Quelex (halauxifen-methyl + florasulam 20% WP), were mixed with safeners, brassinolide (BR) or gibberellic acid (GA), and sprayed on the leaves and stems of ‘Yumi-2’ cultivar at three-leaf stage. Meanwhile, artificial weeding (control check 1, CK1) and tap water (control check 2, CK2) were included. The phytotoxicity index, control efficacy of weed, relative chlorophyll content, and active oxygen metabolism in leaves, shoot biomass, and seed yields were measured. The results showed that: BR eliminated the phytotoxicity of Sigma broad herbicide at low dosage, and 11.5% reduction of phytotoxicity index at high dosage; GA eliminated the phytotoxicity of low-dose Quelex herbicide and 40.9% reduction of phytotoxicity index of high-dose Quelex herbicide. However, the control effect of weed decreased 1.7%-18.0% in the treatments of herbicides and safener combinations. Application of herbicide plus safener increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and chlorophyll content to some extent and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly in proso millet leaves. Compared with the single application of herbicide, the SOD activity in the leaves of proso millet increased in the treatments of low- and high-dose Sigma broad herbicide mixed with BR at 7 d and 28 d after heading stage, and in the treatments of Quelex herbicide mixed with BR or GA at 7d after heading stage. Compared with the single application of herbicide, the shoot biomass of proso millet increased significantly in the treatments of Sigma broad herbicide mixed with BR or GA at 21-28 d after heading stage, and low-dose Quelex mixed with BR at 14 d after heading stage, and high-dose Quelex mixed with GA at 28 d after heading stage. The treatments with the mixture of herbicides and safener increased the seed yield of proso millet. The maximum yield was gained in the treatments of 600 g/hm2 Sigma broad herbicide mixed with 0.015 g/hm2 BR and 100 g/hm2 Quelex herbicide mixed with 14.7 g/hm2 GA, with 26.1% and 27.9% higher than the control of CK2, and 4.6% and 11.6% higher than the herbicide application only, respectively. The results could provide a scientific basis for the safety application of herbicides in broomcorn millet field and the use of plant growth regulators to alleviate herbicide phytotoxicity.
Synergistic effects of three synergists on herbicides
ZENG Mengdie, MENG Lingtao, CAO Hongyu, KOU Junjie
2022, 24(2): 361-367.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0152
[Abstract](70) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 910KB](32)
Abstract:
To study the synergistic effects and synergistic mechanism of three synergists on bentazon, glufosinate-ammonium and haloxyfop-P-methyl, and screen out the synergist with the best performance, the static surface tension (SST), dynamic surface tension (DST), dynamic dryness and contact angle of herbicides, synergists and synergists-added herbicides were investigated and adhesion force and adhesion work were calculated. The physicochemical performance tests revealed that the synergist based on isomeric alcohol ethoxylates performed best in reducing SST, accelerating the reduction of DST and reducing the contact angle, and the synergist based on penetrant T was the second most effective, while the synergist based on methyl oleate had a slight effect and was the worst. The data of adhesion force and adhesion work showed that the herbicide solution containing isomeric alcohol ethoxylates based synergist had stronger adhesion on the leaves and was easier to retain and wet the leaf epidermis. Meanwhile, the results of the indoor efficacy evaluations also confirmed that the synergist isomeric alcohol ethoxylates that had the best physicochemical performance exhibited the best control efficacy when added to herbicides as the main component of a synergist.
Synergistic effect of two spray adjuvants on thiamethoxam in the control of Megalurothrips usitatus in cowpea
WANG Xiaonan, WANG Siwei, CHANG Hong, GU Yanping, LIU Yanping
2022, 24(2): 368-375.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0015
[Abstract](106) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 827KB](8)
Abstract:
Organosilicon adjuvant Silwet stik and vegetable oil adjuvant Maisi were selected to conduct field experiments with thiamethoxam to verify the preventive effect on cowpea thrips and residual behavior. Dissipation dynamic and residues of recommended application dose 75, 67.5, 60, and 52.5 g a.i/hm2 of 25% thiamethoxam water dispersible granules (WG) with two different adjuvants were compared respectively and the preventive effect of 5 and 7 days after the last spray was investigated. The cowpea samples were extracted by acetonitrile, purified with primary secondary amine (PSA), and detected using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results of field tests indicated that the initial deposition of thiamethoxam on cowpea were significantly increased by 8.84% and 6.58% respectively when the adjuvant 0.4% Silwet stik or 0.5% Maisi was added. The control effect against cowpea thrips of 25% thiamethoxam WG added with the two adjuvants above were significantly higher than that without adjuvant 7 days after treatments. Five days after treatments, the addition of adjuvant Silwet stik or Maisi increased preventive effect by 4.04%-8.55% and 10.37%-12.25% respectively, while the recommended application dose of thiamethoxam was reduced by 10%-30%. The results showed that the adjuvant treatments increased the deposition of thiamethoxam on cowpea, which would benefit the synergistic effect of pesticide, and improved control effect on thrips. The study provides evidence for the synergistic control effect of adjuvants and the scientific use of thiamethoxam against cowpea thrips.
Pesticide deposition rates and droplet parameters of different plant protection instruments applied at different growth stages of rice
ZHANG Yongqiang, WANG Feizhao, XIE Jintian, ZHANG Jingxin, LIN Birun, YANG Qiyun, SHEN Huifang, SUN Dayuan, JIANG Cheng'ai, PU Xiaoming
2022, 24(2): 376-384.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0155
[Abstract](76) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 1070KB](6)
Abstract:
The evaluation of the pesticide spraying efficiency of different plant protection equipments could provide theoretical and technical support for pesticide reduction and pest control on rice. The method used in this study was referred to an agricultural industry standard the determination method of pesticide deposition rate (NY/T 2677—2015). Experiments were carried out in the late rice field of direct seeding in Quanan town, Nanxiong City, Guangdong Province. The pesticide utilization rates and droplet parameters of manual sprayer, electric sprayer, and plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were analyzed. The results were as follows. There were significant differences in pesticide deposition rates of different sprayers at the same rice growth period which showed as UAV>electric sprayer>manual sprayer. The average pesticide deposition rates of manual sprayer, electric sprayer, and UAV were 18.33%, 24.58%, and 35.84% respectively at the seedling stage, 24.72%, 35.28%, and 45.15% respectively at the closure stage, and 32.39%, 40.29%, and 52.42% respectively at the rupturing stage. On the other hand, there were significant differences in pesticide deposition rates of different stages of rice with the same sprayer, which was the rupturing stage>the closure stage>the seedling stage. The results of deposition distributions showed that the deposition values of different rice layers of UAV treatments decreased from top to bottom, and the droplet deposition was mainly concentrated on the upper and middle rice layers by using manual and electric sprayers. In addition, thedroplet size results showed that the size of droplet sprayed by UAV was significantly smaller than that of manual and electric sprayer, and also better with the uniformity. Droplet density results indicated that the dispersion of UAV droplets was better than manual and electric sprayers. Compared with the traditional sprayers, the UAV greatly improved the pesticide deposition rate and the atomization effect of pesticide solution.
Residues of metamifop and its metabolites in paddy rice
HE Hongmei, XU Lingying, ZHANG Changpeng, WANG Xiangyun, LI Yanjie, ZHAO Xueping
2022, 24(2): 385-394.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0185
[Abstract](49) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 1333KB](17)
Abstract:
In this work, a method for the determination of the residues of metamifop and its three metabolites in samples of brown rice, paddy hull and rice straw was validated based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The three metabolites were N-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-N-methylpropionamide (HFMPA), N-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-N-methylpropionamide (HPFMPA) and 6-chloro-3H-benzooxazol-2-one (6-CBO). The detection of 6-CBO was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in negative mode (ESI-), and the other three analytes were determined in positive mode (ESI+). The samples of paddy rice were extracted with acetonitrile by an oscillator, and cleaned up by C18 SPE cartridges. The method was validated and the matrix effects were evaluated. The method was applied to detect real final residue samples in the field trials. and the matrix effects were estimated. The average recoveries of metamifop and its metabolites in brown rice, paddy hull and rice straw at three spiked levels (0.01, 0.1 and 2.0 mg/kg) were in the range of 79%-108% with good precision (RSD<10.8%). Satisfactory linear relationships of metamifop, HFMPA, HPFMPA and 6-CBO were obtained in the range of 0.0005-0.02 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9941. Limits of quantifications (LOQs) of metamifop, HFMPA, HPFMPA and 6-CBO in brown rice, paddy hull and rice straw were 0.01 mg/kg. To investigate the final residues of metamifop and its metabolites in paddy rice, the field trials were conducted in paddy rice in ten Provinces in China. The final residues of metamifop, HFMPA, HPFMPA and 6-CBO in brown rice and paddy hull were all below 0.01 mg/kg , which were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of metamifop in brown rice (0.05 mg/kg) established in China. The residues of HFMPA were found in rice straw in the range of < 0.01 mg/kg-0.098 mg/kg, while the final residues of metamifop, HPFMPA and 6-CBO in rice straw were all below LOQ. It is recommended that 20% metamifop + bentazone micro-emulsion (ME, 3.3% metamifop) could be applied at the highest application dosage of 720 g a.i./hm2 (metamifop 118.8 g a.i./hm2 ) in rice and be applied only once.
Determination of chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and its metabolites residues in litchi using QuEChERS and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
WANG Siwei, WANG Xiaonan, CHANG Hong, LIU Yanping, SUN Haibin
2022, 24(2): 395-403.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0177
[Abstract](231) [FullText HTML](86) [PDF 980KB](36)
Abstract:
An analytical method was established for simultaneous determination of chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and its metabolite J9Z38 in litchi by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) combined with a modified QuEChERS procedure. The target compounds were extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and then cleaned up with primary secondary amine (PSA) and octadecylsilane (C18). The analytes were separated on a C18 column using V (formic acid aqueous solution) : V (acetonitrile)=15 : 85 as mobile phase and analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). Quantitative analysis was performed by external standard method using matrix-matched calibration curves. The results showed that the linearity of the target compounds was good (r >0.99) in the range of 0.005-1 mg/L. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.0005-0.01 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the three pesticides in litchi (whole fruit and pulp) ranged from 76% to 98% at the spiked levels of 0.0005-0.5 mg/kg, with the relative standard deviations of 2.5% to 9.6%. The method was applied for the detection of twenty commercial litchi samples in Guangzhou City. The results showed that the residues of chlorantraniliprole were 0.001-0.01 mg/kg, and neither cyantraniliprole nor its metabolite J9Z38 were found. The proposed method is convenient, effective and rapid, and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and its metabolite in litchi.
Development of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method for 14 herbicides residues in milk
YE Qian, ZHU Fuwei, WANG Gang, LIAO Linhan, TANG Xuemei
2022, 24(2): 404-410.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0170
[Abstract](114) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 2093KB](17)
Abstract:
A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(GC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 herbicides in milk was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with MgSO4 and Na2AC, filtered through 0.22 μm organic filter membrane, and the anlytes were determinated with GC-MS/MS (EI source and MRM mode). The results showed that the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.005-1 mg/L and determination coefficient (R2) was higher than 0.990 2. The average recoveries of 14 herbicides were 76%-113% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 1.2%-8.6% (n=6) when the spiked levels were 0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for 14 herbicides were 0.01 mg/kg. The method is accurate, sensitive, simple, and suitable for the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 herbicides residues in milk.
Advanced risk assessment for aquatic ecology of single-dose of pyraclostrobin registered on four crops
ZHENG Haojie, LIU Qinyu, SUN Jian, CHENG Hanzhi, CAO Ling, YIN Xiaohui, WU Changxing
2022, 24(2): 411-422.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0189
[Abstract](109) [FullText HTML](45) [PDF 1577KB](15)
Abstract:
The current situation of single-dose pyraclostrobin products registered on rice, wheat, citrus and potato in China were analyzed, and the exposure concentration in surface water was predicted by using Top-Rice and China-Psem models, as well as their advanced risk to aquatic ecosystem were assessed. The results showed that as of May 2021, there were 25 formualtions of pyraclostrobin registered on four crops in China, which were divided into 5 groups. The proportion of suspension concentrate (SC) was the largest, accounting for 52%, followed by emulsifiable concentrate (EC), accounting for 20%, microcapsule suspension (CS), water dispersible granule (WG) and wettable powders (WP) accounted for 16%, 8% and 4%, respectively. The application range of different formulations of pyraclostrobin and the exposure assessment of different groups on the four crops were investigated, according to the conservative principles of risk assessment. The results showed that the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of pyraclostrobin on rice ranged from 0.07 to 1.24 μg/L in different scenarios and seasons, the predicted environmental concentration of pyraclostrobin used on wheat ranged from 0.45 × 10−3 to 0.60 μg/L, the predicted environmental concentration of pyraclostrobin used on citrus ranged from 0.03 to 0.76 μg/L, and the predicted environmental concentration of pyraclostrobin used on potato ranged from 0.01 to 0.94 μg/L. Under the current registered application conditions, the risk characterization showed that pyraclostrobin was used on four crops for the recommended method, dosage and number of times, the risk was acceptable. However, in view of its high toxicity to aquatic organisms, the dosage and frequency of application on paddy fields should be cautious, as it poses certain risks to aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the analysis of its application method mode was conservative, which might be underestimeated the evaluation result in some way.
Research Reports
Sensitivity of Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates to fludioxonil in Henan Province, China
CHEN Yawei, XU Jianqiang, WANG Shuo, XU Daochao, MA Shichuang, HUANG Yulong, HOU Ying
2022, 24(2): 306-314.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0187
[Abstract](58) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 703KB](10)
Abstract:

Wheat crown rot caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum has become an important soil-borne disease and affects the quality and yield of wheat. In order to detect the sensitivity of F. pseudograminearum to fludioxonil in Henan Province, China, 105 isolates of F. pseudograminearum were collected from six cities in 2019. Sensitivity was determined by the mycelial growth rate method, then the methods of least-significant difference (LSD) and SPSS cluster were used for result analysis. The sensitivity of F. pseudograminearum to carbendazim and tebuconazole was determined and the correlation coefficient which existed between fludioxonil and the two fungicides, carbendazim and tebuconazole was analyzed. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fludioxonil was 0.2400 μg/mL. The sensitivity frequency distribution was a continuous single peak curve, and the EC50 value ranged from 0.0027 to 0.0470 μg/mL. The average EC50 value of (0.0263 ± 0.0101) μg/mL, could be used as the sensitivity baseline of the pathogen to fludioxonil. The variance analysis results showed that the sensitivity of the different cities to fludioxonil was different, and the EC50 value ranged from 0.0150 to 0.0335 μg/mL. The maximum EC50 value of the isolate from Zhongmu County Zhengzhou City was 16.78 times bigger than the minimum value. Cluster analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the sensitivity of isolates to fludioxonil and their geographical origin. The mean EC50 values of carbendazimand tebuconazole against the pathogens were (0.7881 ± 0.3153) μg/mL and (0.0886 ± 0.1453) μg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the sensitivity of the isolates to fludioxonil, carbendazim and tebuconazole. The results of greenhouse trials showed that the control efficacy of fludioxonil suspension seed coat agent could reach 58.00% (75.0 μg a.i/g) in 2020 and 63.69% (50.0 μg a.i/g) in 2021 when used to treat wheat as a seed dressing agent. The results of this study provide the basis for the rational use of fludioxonil in the control of wheat crown rot and provide information for monitoring the sensitivity of pathogenic fungi to fungicides.

RESEARCH NOTES
Study on secondary metabolites and insecticidal activities of mixed fermentation of two marine fungi
CAO Yun, HOU Zongmin, DONG Cunzhu, CAO Fengqin, TAO Min, YU Senquan, XIA Yulian, WU Xianfeng
2022, 24(2): 423-428.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0179
[Abstract](105) [FullText HTML](61) [PDF 617KB](16)
Abstract:
In order to study the secondary metabolites produced by the mixed fermentation of marine fungi Trichoderma harzianum ABC19819 and Penicillium brefeldianum ABC190807, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 gel and thin-layer chromatography were used to isolate and purify the secondary metabolites produced by the mixed fermentation. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and compared with the data in the literatures. The activities of the compounds were evaluated using the third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The results showed that six known compounds were isolated from the mixed culture fermentation products of the two strains and were identified as Agathic acid ( 1 ), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde ( 2 ), nafuredin ( 3 ), 4-hydroxy-3,6-dimethyl-2H-pyranone ( 4 ). Mevalonolactone ( 5 ) and brefeldin A ( 6 ), of which compound 1 was isolated for the first time from the mixed culture fermentation products of the two strains. Compounds 1 and 3 showed significant insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of A. aegypti, with LC50 values of 162 mg/L and 240 mg/L after 72 h of treatment. This study is of great value for obtaining compounds with insecticidal activities through mixed fermentation.
Simultaneous determination of chlorothalonil and its metabolite in fruits and vegetables using modified QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
BI Ruifeng, DENG Suocheng, FU Meng, ZHANG Weiwei, ZHANG Yixia
2022, 24(2): 429-434.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2021.0161
[Abstract](147) [FullText HTML](67) [PDF 667KB](31)
Abstract:
An analytical method for simultaneous determination of chlorothalonil and its metabolite chlorothalonil-4-hydroxy in fruits and vegetables was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted by acidified acetonitrile, and the extraction solution was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS equipped with APCI ion source. The results showed that good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.005-0.2 mg/L with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.99. The limits of quantification were 0.01 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.2 mg/kg, the average recoveries in four sample matrices (cabbage, cucumber, grape, and apple) were 83%-104% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varying from 0.73% to 7.7% (n=6). The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate and reliable, and it is suitable for the quantitative determination of chlorothalonil and its metabolite in fruits and vegetables.
cover2
2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](49) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 4330KB](10)
Abstract:
cover3
2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](56) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 6240KB](14)
Abstract:
The back cover
2022, 24(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](78) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 2548KB](5)
Abstract:
Research advances and application prospects of microencapsulation techniques in pesticide
LI Beixing, ZHANG Daxia, ZHANG Canguang, GUAN Lei, WANG Kai, LIU Feng
2014, 16(5): 483-496.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.01
[Abstract](4748) [PDF 1351KB](1075)
Research and development of crop protection machinery and chemical application technology in China
HE Xiongkui
2019, 21(5-6): 921-930.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0089
[Abstract](2246) [FullText HTML](1341) [PDF 1400KB](194)
Research progress on insecticides resistance in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
WANG Qinqin, CUI Li, WANG Li, LIANG Pei, YUAN Huizhu, RUI Changhui
2019, 21(4): 401-408.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0072
[Abstract](4838) [FullText HTML](2034) [PDF 509KB](192)
Research progresses on the metabolic mechanisms of organophosphate insecticides
Wang Zhichao, Kang Zhijiao, Shi Xueyan, Gao Xiwu
2015, 17(1): 1-14.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.01.01
[Abstract](4462) [PDF 1725KB](854)
Preliminary studies on synergism and mechanisms of six organosilicon additives on fomesafen
Zhang Zhongliang, Li Xiangquan, Wang Huan, Liu Yingchun, Tao Bo
2015, 17(1): 115-118.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.01.17
[Abstract](3618) [PDF 970KB](487)
Synergism of six spray adjuvants on mesotrione in controlling Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus
Zhang Jing, Lü Heping, Cao Lidong, Liu Yajing, Zhao Peng, Li Fengmin, Huang Qiliang
2015, 17(3): 348-356.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.03.15
[Abstract](3549) [PDF 1437KB](401)
Research progress and prospects of microbial pesticide formulation for plant disease control
LIU Zhenhua, LUO Yuanchan, ZHANG Daojing, LI Yuanguang
2014, 16(5): 497-507.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.02
[Abstract](4239) [PDF 1299KB](791)
Mechanism of insect metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides
CHEN Chengyu, SHI Xueyan, GAO Xiwu
2016, 18(5): 545-555.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2016.0078
[Abstract](1515) [PDF 1365KB](283)
Development and evaluation of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay for residue detection of three organophosphorus pesticides
ZOU Rubing, LIU Ying, WANG Shuangjie, ZHANG Ya, GUO Yirong, ZHU Guonian
2017, 19(1): 37-45.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2017.0006
[Abstract](1339) [FullText HTML](189) [PDF 1269KB](121)
Progress on the development and application of biopesticide Shenqinmycin
FANG Yunling, SUN Shuang, SHEN Yue, HE Yawen
2014, 16(4): 387-393.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.04.03
[Abstract](3961) [PDF 2342KB](448)