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Determination of resistance level and multi-resistance to pendimethalin of weed Solanum nigrum in Xinjiang cotton fields
WEI Yingfeng, ZHANG Quancheng, ZHA Hui, WANG Xiaoli, WANG Jungang
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0059
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 598KB](2)
Abstract:
In order to clarify the resistance level of weed Solanum nigrum L. to pendimethalin and its multi-resistance to other commonly used soil-treatment herbicides in Xinjiang cotton fields, 56 S. nigrum populations from different regions of Xinjiang were tested by the Petri dish method and the whole plant method and the differences between the two detection methods were compared. According to the results of the whole plant method, three populations of sensitive (SHZ-8), medium resistance (CJ-2), and high resistance (BL-1) were selected to determine multi-resistance to prometryn, oxyfluorfen, and flumioxazin, respectively. The result showed that the resistance trend of the two methods was the same, and the resistance level of S. nigrum showed northern Xinjiang > southern and eastern Xinjiang, but the resistance index measured by the Petri dish method was generally lower than that by the whole plant method. The results of the Petri dish method showed that sensitive, low-resistance, medium-resistance, and high-resistance populations accounted for 12.5%, 71.4%, 12.5%, and 3.6% of the total populations, respectively, Whereas the corresponding ratios s of the whole plant method were 5.4%, 73.2%, 16.0%, and 5.4%. The results of both methods are consistent and indicate that the resistance of S. nigrum to pendimethalin in Xinjiang cotton fields was mostly low to medium resistance. Compared with the sensitive population SHZ-8, the BL-1 population showed the highest relative resistance in both methods: the GR50 value tested by the Petri dish method was 90.30 mg/L and the resistance index was 20.62; the GR50 tested by the whole plant method was 4805 g/hm2 and the resistance index was 26.20. The multi-resistance study found that the BL-1 population had multi-resistance to flumioxazin, while the WJQ-2 population did not develop multi-resistance to prometryn, oxyfluorfen, and flumioxazin.
Effects of low doses of acetamiprid and afidopyropen on the parasitic function of Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead)
ZHANG Liang, LV Haixiang, SHI Dandan, LI Xuchao, MA Kangsheng
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0058
[Abstract](10) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 753KB](0)
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In order to clarify the effects of low doses of chemical insecticides on parasitic natural enemies, the effects of two low doses (LC5 and LC30) of a commonly used insecticide (acetamiprid) and a novel insecticide (afidopyropen) on the parasitic functional response of Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) to Aphis gossypii Glover were determined in the present study. The results showed that the LC50 of A. gossypii to acetamiprid and afidopyropen were 442.6 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L, and the LD50 of L. japonica to these two insecticides were 0.007 μg/cm2 and 20.58 μg/cm2, respectively. After exposure to sublethal doses of insecticides, the parasitism of L. japonica showed a negative acceleration curve with the density of A. gossypii. The parasitism load of L. japonica increased gradually with the increase of A. gossypii density. The basic structure of the functional response model of L. japonica still conformed to Holling type-Ⅱ, while the parameters of the model had some changes. When A. gossypii density was 20, 40, and 100 individuals per dish, the parasitism of L. japonica was significantly lower than that of the control group except for that of L. japonica treated with LC5 of acetamiprid, which was not significantly different from the control, and the LD30 of acetamiprid had the strongest inhibition on the parasitism of L. japonica. When A. gossypii was exposed to low doses of insecticides, the parasitism time of L. japonica on A. gossypii was significantly prolonged compared to the control. Moreover, the maximum daily predation of L. japonica was significantly lower than that of the control. In addition, the searching efficiency of L. japonica was significantly inhibited by low doses of acetamiprid and afidopyropen. Our results indicated that low doses of acetamiprid and afidopyropen had negative effects on the parasitism of L. japonica, and these results help to protect and utilize natural enemies and guide the scientific and rational use of pesticides in the fields.
Research progress on gibberellic acid biosynthesis based on metabonomics
YIN Kainan, WU Choufei, YIN Lianghong, LIN Haiping
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0063
[Abstract](26) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 1137KB](1)
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Gibberellic acid (GA) is a widely-used hormone that governs plant growth. At present, GA used in agricultural production is mainly from the liquid fermentation of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, but the yield is far from meeting the market demand. Metabonomics, as an important branch of system biology, has attracted extensive attention and made significant progress in the field of microbiology in recent years. This paper reviews the research progress at home and abroad in the fields of the type, production, application, and research process of GA, the concept, advantage, research technique, determination of GA on metabonomics, and the effect of genetic modification, abiotic stress, precursors on the biosynthesis of GA. The combined application of multiple omics related to the efficient synthesis of GA has also been prospected. It provides ideas for the further improvement of GA production in industrial production.
Effects of Bordeaux mixture on the community structure and metabolic function of tobacco phyllosphere microorganisms
LIU Tingting, WANG Hancheng, SUN Meili, YIN Guoying, ZHANG Pan, CAI Liuti, XIANG Ligang, MENG Jianyu, ZHANG Changqing
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0087
[Abstract](14) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 2131KB](4)
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In this paper, the virulence of Bordeaux mixture against Alternaria alternata was determined, and the effects of Bordeaux mixture on phyllosphere microbial community structure and metabolic function of healthy and diseased tobacco leaves were determined by high-throughput sequencing and Biolog metabolic phenotype technology. Results showed that Bordeaux mixture had a weak inhibitory activity against A. alternata with EC50 values for inhibiting mycelial growth and spore germination of 450.19 and 757.17 mg/L, respectively. The phyllosphere bacteria in both healthy and diseased tobacco were distributed in Proteobacteria (6.93% and 39.07%) and Firmicutes (16.45% and 0.65%), and the dominant bacterial genera were Kosakonia (3.46% and 22.38%) and Pseudomonas (0.22% and 5.95%). The phyllosphere fungi in both healthy and diseased tobacco were distributed in Ascomycota (63.82% and 93.74%) and Basidiomycota (6.82% and 2.53%), and the dominant fungal genera were Alternaria (36.48% and 84.52%), Symmetrospora (5.56% and 2.27%) and Cladosporium (14.87% and 6.66%). Bordeaux mixture at 1 500 g/hm2 affected the community structure and metabolic function of phyllosphere bacteria and fungi in healthy and diseased tobacco. In the bacterial and fungal communities, the relative abundances of Kosakonia, Sphinomonas, and Lactobacillus decreased, while the relative abundances of 6 bacterial genera including Pseudomonas, Ralstonia increased after 5 days of treatment. The relative abundance of 6 fungal genera including Alternaria, Symmetrospora decreased, while the relative abundance of 10 fungal genera including Didymella, Metarhizium increased after 5 days of treatment. The effects of Bordeaux mixture on phyllosphere fungi and bacteria gradually decreased after 10 and 15 days of treatment. Twenty-nine carbon sources including carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids, amphiphiles, polymers, and amine/amino compounds could be efficiently metabolized by phyllosphere microorganisms of healthy and diseased tobacco leaves, but the metabolism of α-butyric acid was weak. The metabolic inhibition activity of Bordeaux mixture on phyllosphere microorganisms decreased gradually with the increase of time. The results of the study revealed the regularity of the effect of Bordeaux mixture on the microbes of tobacco leaves after different periods of application and provided a reference for understanding the ecological benefits of the fungicide in the effective period.
Nonderivatization method for determination of highly polar pesticides and their metabolites in environmental water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
FANG Ling, SHI Mengzhu, SI Ruiru, WEI Hang, LIANG Qifu, FU Jianwei
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0128
[Abstract](1) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 978KB](1)
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A simple, direct injection and non-derivatized analytical method was developed for rapid determination of six highly polar compounds, including ethephon, glyphosate, glufosinate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, 3-phosphonyl propionic acid, and glufosinate-N-acetyl in environmental water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The environmental water samples were centrifuged and filtered through 0.22 µm filter membrane to remove solids and were directly injected for quantitative analysis without derivatization. The target compounds were separated by Waters Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm). Chromatographic separation was carried out by gradient elution with mobile phase A (water with 0.1% formic acid and 5 µmol/L medronic acid) and mobile phase B (methanol). The target compounds were finally detected using electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Quantitative analysis was performed using the external standard calibration curves. The results showed that all six compounds had good linear relationship within their respective linear ranges, and the coefficient of determination (R2) were higher than 0.99. The average recoveries of six compounds in water samples were from 75% to 100% at spiked levels ranging from 10 µg/L to 200 µg/L. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations(n=6) were 3.6%-7.0% and 4.3%-7.5%, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5-10 µg/L. Ten surface water samples collected from three areas were detected using the established method, and the results showed that the six compounds were all not detected. Compared with other derivatization methods, this method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity, and it may provide reference for the detection of highly polar compounds such as ethephon, glyphosate, glufosinate, and their metabolites in environmental water.
Uncertainty evaluation for determination of 15 pesticides and metabolites residues in 3 matrices
YANG Xiaoyun, JIANG Liang, LIU Jiangqing, LU Xiaoting, WANG Lifang, ZHOU Wenzhong, HU Jianxi, LI Luyun, LIU Jing
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0074
[Abstract](8) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 770KB](2)
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According to the QuEChERS pretreatment in GB 23200.113—2018 national food safety standard-Determination of 208 pesticides and metabolites residues in foods of plant origin-Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, a mathematical model was established for the determination of 15 pesticides and metabolites residues in tea, cabbage and apple by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), and the uncertainty was evaluated by analyzing the main sources of uncertainty. The results indicate that the values of expanded uncertainty caused by working curve and recovery are larger than the preparation process of standard solution and sample, however, repeatability and instrument caused minimum expanded uncertainty, and there are differences among the uncertainty caused by working curve, recovery and repeatability for different matrix. Mismatched matrix working curves could enhance or inhibit the matrix effects of some pesticides. This study not only applies to the uncertainty evaluation of pesticides and metabolites residues in foods of plant origin by GC-MS/MS but also provides a scientific and reliable reference for the accuracy of pesticide residue data.
Determination of the residues of three pesticides and two metabolites in rice by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
ZHANG Binbin, DONG Fengshou, PAN Xinglu, WU Xiaohu, XU Jun, ZHENG Yongquan
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0047
[Abstract](6) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 2284KB](0)
Abstract:
An analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established and optimized for simultaneous determination of emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, fluxapyroxad and its metabolites M700F008 and M700F048 in rice. Rice husk and brown rice were extracted with 0.2% formic acid acetonitrile and cleaned up with C18, while rice straw was extracted with 1% formic acid acetonitrile and cleaned up with N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). T3 chromatographic column was used for separation and the mobile phase was methanol and 0.2% formic acid water. Electrospray ionization in positive ion mode was selected, the detection mode was multi-reaction monitoring, and external standard method was used for quantification. The results showed that there was a good linear relationship between the mass concentration and peak area of the five tested compounds, and the determination coefficient was greater than 0.9955. The average recoveries of the five compounds in rice husk, brown rice and rice straw were in range of 71%-119% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1%-11%, which met the requirements of residue analysis. The residues of emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole and fluxapyroxad in brown rice samples collected from three locations were all lower than MRLs in China.
Residue behavior and risk assessment of difenoconazole in celery and soil
CHEN Wuying, CHEN Ang, LI Kailong, LUO Xiangwen, XIONG Hao, LIU Zhibang, SONG Zengshou, LIU Yong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0120
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 754KB](0)
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The field trials on terminal residue and dissipation of difenoconazole in celery were carried out in Hunan and Shandong Provinces, and the acute toxicity of 10% difenoconazole water dispersible granule (WG) on soil organisms were studied in the laboratory. Based on the residue data and toxicity endpoints, the long-term and short-term dietary intake risks of difenoconazole to different populations in China and the environmental risks to soil organisms were evaluated. The results showed that the half-life of difenoconazole in celery leaves, stems and soil were 5.2-8.8, 8.0-8.2 and 13.6-15.0 d, respectively. After the formulation was applied for three times with the interval of 5 days at the recommended dosage of 120 g/hm2, the residue of difenoconazole in celery leaves was higher than MRL (3 mg/kg, China) and the residues in celery stem and the whole celery seedling were less than MRL on the 5th day after last application. The short-term dietary intake risk quotient (RQa) for the general population and children aged 1-6 years were 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. The long-term dietary risk assessment results showed that the contribution rate of the residues in celery for different populations in China was 9.4%-19.8%. The primary risk of 10% difenoconazole WG to soil organism was acceptable with acute risk quotient RQe of 0.368-0.890.
Adsorption characteristics and simulation of metazosulfuron in soils
FANG Liping, YUAN Xuexia, LIANG Jingyun, GUAN Shuai, DU Hongxia
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0071
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 942KB](6)
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Sulfonylurea herbicide is one of the widely used pesticides. Its migration, degradation, transformation, and retention in the soil system are affected by its adsorption and desorption behaviors in soil. In this study, 8 types of soil from different provinces were selected to investigate the adsorption and successive desorption of metazosulfuron using equilibrium batch experiments. The results showed a very rapid adsorption process in the initial stage (0-4 h), then followed by a slow desorption (4-24 h) process. The Freundlich model fits the isothermal adsorption and desorption process of metazosulfuron in soil well, with r values ranged from 0.9584 to 0.9973. All the selected soils had a low adsorption capacity of metazosulfuron, with Kf-ads ranging from 0.281 to 3.515. Among them, the albic soil from Heilongjiang has the strongest adsorption capacity of metazosulfuron, which was much higher than others. Except for latosolic red soil from Guangxi, the desorption hysteresis values in the other 7 selected soils were below 1, indicating that hysteresis existed in the process of desorption, which means potential environmental risks. The single factor experiment result showed that the effect of humic acid on the adsorption capacity of soil to metazosulfuron was extremely significant (P<0.01), and the effects of pH and Mn2 + were significant (P<0.05), while the effects of kaolin and biochar were not significant (P>0.05). Using the results of the central composite design experiment, a BP neural network model with certain prediction functions, was established and verified.
Breeding of high-yield strains for producing ethyl ivermectin and the optimization of the fermentation process
LI Bing, QI Huan, ZHANG Chenghong, ZHANG Shaoyong, ZHANG Liqin, XIANG Wensheng, WANG Jidong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0070
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 4272KB](0)
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Ethyl and methyl ivermectin, as a new kind of avermectin derivatives with high efficacy and low toxicity, were obtained from a genetically engineered strain Streptomyces avermitilis AVE-H39 and have a good prospect of development and application. Bioassay results showed that the insecticidal activity of ethyl ivermectin against the agricultural and forestry pests including Tetranychus cinnabarinus and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was higher than that of methyl ivermectin. However, the industrial development of ethyl ivermectin is restricted by its low fermentation titer. In this research, a mutant strain with a higher fermentation yield of ethyl ivermectin was obtained through multiple rounds of mutagenesis and breeding. The fermentation medium was improved by Plackett-Burman experimental design and Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized fermentation condition was corn starch 149.8 g/L, soybean flour 38.1 g/L, (NH4)2SO4 3.04 g/L, mannitol 30.0 g/L, yeast extract 20.0 g/L, CaCO3 3.0 g/L, CoCl2 0.01 mg/L, FeSO4 0.002 mg/L, rotation speed 220 r/min, initial pH 7.2, 30 mL medium per 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, inoculum volume 5%, fermentation temperature 28 ℃. Under the optimized condition, the fermentation titer of ethyl ivermectin reached the maximum value of 4965 mg/L. This research lay the foundation for the development of the new sixteen-membered macrolide insecticide ethyl ivermectin.
Synthesis and pesticidal activities of cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene 3-aryl-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-formate derivatives
SHAN Xijie, LI Haijie, LI Tianze, XU Hui, LYU Min
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0066
[Abstract](25) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 719KB](5)
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In order to find cholesterol derivatives with high insecticidal activities, isoxazoline fragments were introduced into the C-3 position of cholesterol ( 1 ), and twenty novel cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene 3-aryl-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-formate derivatives ( Ia - It ) containing the isoxazoline fragment were prepared. Their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, IR and HRMS. Among them, compound Ie (R = 3-Br-Ph) exhibited good insecticidal activity against Plutella xyllostella with a LC50 value of 0.940 mg/mL at 48 h, which was 2.7 times of that of 1 (LC50: 2.566 mg/mL). Compounds Ig (R = 3-F-Ph) and Ij (R = 4-CF3-Ph) showed the potent aphicidal activity against Aphis citricola with LD50 values of 0.042 and 0.041 μg/nymph at 48 h, respectively, which were 5.4 and 5.6 times of that of 1 (LD50: 0.228 μg/nymph). The preliminary study of structure-activity relationships (SARs) indicated that introduction of the bromine atom at the C-3 position of phenyl can improve the insecticidal activity against P. xyllostella; introduction of the fluorine atom at the C-3 or C-4 position of phenyl, or introduction of the CF3 at the C-4 position of phenyl can improve the aphicidal activity against A. citricola.
Research progress of nanoemulsion of pesticides
ZHANG Hanghang, CHEN Huiping, CAO Chong, ZHAO Pengyue, LI Fengmin, HUANG Qiliang, CAO Lidong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0091
[Abstract](20) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 2476KB](2)
Abstract:
In recent years, the rapid development of nanotechnology has opened up new application prospects for modern plant protection. As a novel nano-carrying drug system, nanoemulsion with advantages of good dispersion, wetting, slow release, high efficiency, and small particle size, improves the attachment, deposition and penetration of pesticides on the target surface, effectively improving the utilization rate of pesticides, reducing the use of pesticides, and the risk brought to the environment. This paper introduces the composition and preparation methods of nanoemulsion and reviews the research and application in the field of pesticides. At the same time, the controversial boundary between nano-emulsion and microemulsion is discussed, and the development prospect of this field is addressed to provide a reference for the preparation of nano-emulsion with excellent performance.
Research progress on the asymmetric syntheses of sex pheromones of loopers
YANG Yuxiong, YUAN Chaonan, ZHONG Jiangchun, BIAN Qinghua, WANG Min
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0056
[Abstract](72) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 3004KB](14)
Abstract:
Loopers are common pests of fruit trees and forests, and their sex pheromone components include chiral methyl-branched alkanes, trienes and chiral epoxy olefins. The sex pheromone of loopers can be used for attracting males and monitoring the seasonal activities as a promising technology. The syntheses of the chiral methyl-branched alkanes involved chiral sources, enzymatic kinetic resolutions, asymmetric catalytic reactions, chelation-controlled reactions and chiral inductions, which were described on the basis of the constructions of chiral center. Furthermore, according to the linking strategies of key intermediates, the preparation of chiral epoxy olefins, such as alkylative epoxide rearrangement, the reaction of alkynyl lithium reagent and the use of Gilman reagents, was reviewed.
Ecological risk assessment of imidacloprid in surface water fromrice- vegetable rotation areas by using interspecies correlation estimation
TAN Huadong, WANG Chuanmi, WU Qiumin, CUI Yanmei, WU Chuanyuan
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0119
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 2108KB](0)
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Imidacloprid is widely detected in surface water from sub-tropical or tropical agricultural regions of China. However, there is scanty information on the ecological risk assessment of imidacloprid in surface water near tropical crop systems due to the lack of toxicity data on local aquatic organisms. In this study, the acute toxicity risk threshold-hazardous concentration at the 5th percentile of the species (HC5) -of imidacloprid to local aquatic organisms in surface water was obtained based on web-interspecific correlation estimation (Web-ICE) and species sensitivity distribution (SSD) models, then its ecological risk assessment in surface water near rice-vegetable practice in Chengmai (Hainan) was temporally and spatially assessed by risk quotient (RQ). The results showed that the risk threshold HC5 of imidacloprid in the aquatic environment around the rice-vegetable rotation in Chengmai is 4.30 μg/L, 41.7% of water samples with the RQ of higher than 1. Also, the RQ values corresponding to the median and maximum concentrations of imidacloprid in surface water from our study were significantly higher than the RQ values in surface water from other regions of China, indicating that imidacloprid residues had higher potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms in surface water from tropical rice-vegetable rotation field. In addition, there was the highest potential ecological risk occurring in April, the sowing time (RQ>1 in 92.3% surface water), vegetable planting period (mean RQ=2.53 with RQ>1 with 68% water surface water), and the central regions of Chengmai during the practice of rice-vegetable rotation, indicating that there were significant spatiotemporal and crop-related characteristics of the ecological risk of imidacloprid in surface water. It thus contrives to limit and reasonably use imidacloprid by planting period and region in the practice of rice-vegetable rotation in Chengmai, Hainan.
Effects of surface free energy of crops leaves and spry adjuvants on the wettability of pesticide solution on five crop leaves
FENG Yuntao, GUO Xiaojun, LI Ya, LI Guangyu, YU Qin, ZHANG Runxiang
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0054
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 553KB](4)
Abstract:
In order to understand the surface wettability of leaves of different crops and improve the efficiency of chemical control by the scientific selection of adjuvants, the surface free energy and its components of wheat, corn, pepper, soybean, and apple leaves were measured by optical video contact angle measuring instrument. The contact angles of 2% femamectin benzoate ME and 20% abamectin + monosultap ME on the leaves of the above five crops were measured. The results showed that there were great differences in the adaxial and abaxial surface free energy of five crop leaves. The maximum and minimum surface free energy were pepper leaves (54.12 and 45.08 mJ/m2) and wheat leaves (3.76 and 6.42 mJ/m2), respectively. There were differences in surface free energy of the adaxial and abaxial leaves of the same crop. The adaxial and abaxial free energy of pepper leaves and the adaxial free energy of soybean leaves are dominated by polarity component, manifesting hydrophilicity, while the adaxial and abaxial free energy of wheat, corn, apple, and the abaxial free energy of soybean leaves are dominated by dispersion component, manifesting hydrophobicity. When Silwet 408 and GY-Spry were added to the 5000-fold solution of 2% femamectin benzoate ME and 750-fold solution of 20% abamectin + monosultap ME, the contact angle of the solution on the leaves of five crops decreased to varying levels. After adding Silwet 408, the contact angles of the two solutions decreased by 82.63%-100% and 85.07%-100% respectively. With the addition of GY-Spry, they decreased by 0-57.54% and 10.96%-59.13% respectively. The addition of Silwet 408 decreased the contact angle more significantly than GY-Spry. The decreasing trend of contact angle of the two insecticides added with adjuvants on the leaf surface of five crops was the same, and the decreasing trend of contact angle in 0-30 s was significantly higher than that in 30-60 s. Both Silwet 408 and GY-Spry improve the wettability of 2% femamectin benzoate ME and 20% abamectin + monosultap ME to five targets, and Silwet 408 is superior to GY-Spry.
Synthesis and biological activity of N-((5-alkylthio-1,3,4-oxadiazole)-2-ylmethyl) tralopyril
ZHOU Pu, HUANG Junjie, HE Changwen, GUO Qiannan, YOU Jiang, LIU Yifan, XU Zhihong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0065
[Abstract](34) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 653KB](2)
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In order to find new compounds with pesticide activity, a series of N-((5-alkylthio-1,3,4-oxadiazole)-2-methyl) tralopyril were designed and synthesized from tralopyril by nucleophilic substitution, hydrazinolysis and cyclization. The structures of these derivatives were confirmed by 1H NMR and HRMS. The test against 5 pathogenic fungi showed that most of the target compounds had certain fungicidal activity at the concentration of 0.20 mmol/L, and the inhibitory rate of compound 5h against Magnaporthe oryzae was 60.07%, which was better than that of the control agent fludioxonil (58.21%). The results of insecticidal and acaricidal activities showed that at the concentration of 0.20 mmol/L, some of the target compounds had certain insecticidal and acaricidal activities against Spodoptera litura and adult mite of Tetranychus cinnabarinus, while all were lower than the control agent chlorfenapyr (100%). The results of nematicidal activity showed that most of the compounds exhibited excellent nematicidal activity at the concentration of 0.20 mmol/L. The LC50 values of compounds 5k, 5r and 5s against Caenorhabditis elegans were 0.0918, 0.0733, 0.0810 mmol/L respectively, which were better than the control agent fosthiazate (0.2798 mmol/L). The target compounds synthesized in this study have certain fungicidal, insecticidal, acaricidal and nematicidal activities, which can provide a reference for the design and synthesis of tralopyril derivatives.
Antifungal activity study of triticonazole with phenamacril on Fusarium fujikuroi
LI Meixia, CHEN Xianghua, ZHOU Changyong, CHEN Yali, ZHU Chunhua, CAO Kaige, WANG Jianxin, ZHOU Mingguo, DUAN Yabing
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0134
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 546KB](1)
Abstract:
In this study, mycelial growth rate method was used to determine the antifungal activity of triticonazole against Fusarium fujikuroi, and the EC50 values of triticonazole against F. Fujikuroi ranged from 0.0664 to 0.7661 μg/mL. The germination rate, plant height, and fresh weight of rice were not affected by 25 g/L triticonazole suspension concentrate for seed treatment at concentrations of 60, 120 and 240 μg/mL. The results indicated that triticonazole not only has good antifungal activity against F. fujikuroi, but also has good safety on rice, and can be used to control rice bakanae disease. The EC50 values of phenamacril against 10 strains of F. fujikuroi ranged from 0.0076 to 0.2629 μg/mL. Furtherly, the joint toxicities of phenamacril and triticonazole at the ratios of 4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4 against F. fujikuroi were determined, and the synergistic ratio ranged from 0.5 to 1.5, indicating that the combinations of phenamacril and triticonazole exhibited an additive effect on mycelial growth of F. fujikuroi. The combinations of phenamacril and triticonazole not only decrease the use dosage of single component significantly, but also reduce the selective pressure of F. fujikuroi populations to phenamacril and delay the resistance development, thereby ensure the control efficacy of rice bakanae disease and safe production of rice.
Bioactivities of boscalid, etc. eight fungicides against Didymella segeticola in tobacco
WANG Hancheng, HUANG Yu, YANG Jinchu, LI Zhimo, CAI Liuti, WEI Kesu, MENG Jianyu, LI Zhong
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0092
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 528KB](0)
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Bioactivities of eight fungicides (boscalid, difenoconazole, propiconazole, flusilazole, carbendazim, prochloraz, dimethachlon, mancozeb) to the pathogen of a tobacco leaf spot, Didymella segeticola, were determined using bioassay method at mycelial growth stage. And in vivo protective and curative effects of these fungicides against tobacco leaf spot caused by D. segeticolla on detached leaves were also analyzed. The results showed that all eight fungicides presented different inhibitory activities against mycelial growth, and also showed some protective and curative efficacies against the leaf spot caused by the pathogen. The most effective against mycelial growth of the pathogen was boscalid, with EC50 value of (0.0470 ± 0.0120) mg/L; followed by difenoconazole [(0.0790 ± 0.0050) mg/L], prochloraz [(0.29 ± 0.08) mg/L], propiconazole [(0.69 ± 0.12) mg/L], dimethachlon [(1.08 ± 0.33) mg/L], carbendazim [(1.22 ± 0.29) mg/L], flusilazole [(1.38 ± 0.07) mg/L]; and least effective was noted by mancozeb with EC50 value of (22.80 ± 10.51) mg/L. The next test showed that flusilazole, difenoconazole, propiconazole, boscalid and dimethachlon all had better protective activity for the control of this disease, they all showed >82% efficacy when at 25 mg/L dosage treatment. In comparison, 100 mg/L mancozeb only showed 70.51% efficacy. Boscalid and flusilazole all showed better curative activities, with efficacies of >80% when at 25 mg/L dosage treatment; followed by prochloraz, difenoconazole, carbendazim and dimethachlon; mancozeb showed relatively poor activity, with 63.31% efficacy when at 100 mg/L dosage treatment. The results have provided scientific evidence and reference for screening fungicides to control tobacco leaf spot.
Research progress on screening and identification techniques of insect semiochemicals
QIAN Chenyu, YUAN Pengyu, MA Tao, WEN Xiujun
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0068
[Abstract](15) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 2246KB](4)
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In the chemical ecology field, electroantennography (EAG), gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), single sensillum recordings (SSR), and gas chromatography-single sensillum recordings (GC-SSR) play significant roles in the identification, screening of insect infochemicals and are widely used in chemoreception mechanism of semiochemical, and the investigation of the interactions between insects and plants. Here, the functions and mechanisms of the five above-mentioned technologies were expounded, their applications were summarized, and will provide technical references for the research of insect semiochemicals from the perspective of chemecology.
Resistance of Botrytis cinerea to thiophanate-methyl, diethofencarb, and procymidone in postharvest cherry
SONG Haoqi, YANG Xiaoqi, LI Agen, WU Jianyan, ZHANG Chuanqing
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0039
[Abstract](33) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 862KB](4)
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The pathogenic fungi of postharvest grey mold on cherry fruits from Hanyuan, Sichuan Province, and Yantai, Shandong Province were collected and identified by single-spored method. The sensitivity of the tested strains to thiophanate-methyl, diethofencarb, and procymidone was determined by differential dose method. The alignments of the DNA sequences of β-tubulin gene and BcOS1 gene were carried out to analyze the molecular mechanism of resistant strains. The results showed that the 54 isolates collected from postharvest cherry were Botrytis cinerea, and the total resistance frequency to thiophanate-methyl was 79.6%. Among them, the resistance frequency of thiophanate-methyl-resistant and diethofencarb-sensitive strains (BEN R1) was 25.9%. The resistance frequency of strains resistant to both thiophanate-methyl and diethofencarb (BEN R2) was 53.7%. Nine procymidone-resistant strains (DCF R) were detected, and the resistance frequency was 16.7%. There were two types of mutation in β-tubulin gene of benzimidazole-resistant strains. In BEN R1, the codon at position 198 was mutated from GAG to GCG, resulting in the amino acid encoded by Glutamate-Glu (E) being changed to Alanine-Ala (A). In BEN R2, the codon at position 198 was mutated from GAG to GTG, resulting in the change of the encoded amino acid from Glu (E) to valine-Val (V). The codon at position 365 in BcOS1 gene of DCF R was mutated from ATC to AAC or AGC, resulting in the change of the encoded amino acid from isoleucine-Ile (I) to asparagine-Asn (N) or serine-Ser (S). The results indicated that B. cinerea on cherry had different degrees of resistance to thiophanate-methyl and procymidone. It is necessary to alternate with other types of fungicides while strengthening resistance monitoring to delay the development of resistance.
Sensitivity baseline of Ceratocystis fimbriata to fludioxonil and control efficacy of fludioxonil against black rot of sweet potato
ZHANG Desheng, QIAO Qi, BAI Ruiying, TIAN Yuting, WANG Shuang, WANG Yongjiang, ZHAO Fumei, ZHANG Zhenchen
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0094
[Abstract](9) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 2091KB](1)
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of Ceratocystis fimbriata to fludioxonil, and valuate the control efficacy of fludioxonil against black rot of sweet potato during seedling and storage stage. A total of 64 isolates were collected from sweet potatoes in Henan province, Sichuan province, Hebei province and Shandong province. With concave slides test, the effect of fludioxonil on spore germination and germ tube elongation was observed. The sensitivity of 64 isolates was respectively determined by spore germination and mycelial growth rate method. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the control efficacies of fludioxonil 50% WP against black rot of sweet potato during seedling and storage stage. The results showed that the conidia germination rate of C. fimbriata decreased gradually and the tortuosity of germ tube increased gradually with the concentrations of fludioxonil increasing. Fludioxonil could also cause premature branching of germ tube. EC50 values of fludioxonil against spore germination ranged from 0.20 μg/mL to 0.99 μg/mL, with a mean of 0.52 μg/mL. EC50 values of fludioxonil against mycelial growth ranged from 0.17 μg/mL to 0.31 μg/mL, with a mean of 0.24 μg/mL. As the sensitivity frequency showed normal distribution, the mean EC50 values could be regarded as the baseline sensitivity of C. fimbriata to fludioxonil. The control efficacy of fludioxonil 50% WP on seedlings of sweet potato dipped in the suspension of fludioxonil at 500 mg a.i./L was 90.24% and significantly higher than that of thiophanate-methyl 500 g/L SC at the same rate during seedling stage. The control efficacies of fludioxonil dipped in the suspension of fludioxonil at 500 mg a.i./L for two consecutive years were 84.41% and 82.30%, respectively, which were also significantly higher than that of thiophanate-methyl dripped in the suspension of thiophanate-methyl at the same rate during storage. The residues of fludioxonil were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) for 60d and 90d after application. Fludioxonil has great potential to control black rot of sweet potato during growth and storage.
Development of 3 billion CFU/g Bacillus wettable powder and its control efficacy on potato Verticillium wilt and scab
ZHANG Xiaoyun, CONG Rong, ZHAO Weisong, QU Yuanhang, SU Zhenhe, GUO Qinggang, LU Xiuyun, LI Shezeng, MA Ping
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0081
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 1031KB](7)
Abstract:
Soilborne diseases such as potato Verticillium wilt and potato scab seriously affected the yield and quality of potato and no effective chemical is available to control the diseases. In this study, Bacillus subtilis HMB26553 and B. amyloliquefaciens PHODG36 were used as active ingredients to develop wettable powder (WP). After evaluating the doses of the wetting agent, dispersant, and UV protective agent, the optimal formulation of 3 billion CFU/g Bacillus WP was established as follows: 10% HMB26553 technical concentrate (TK), 10% PHODG36 TK, 1% wetting agent LT-569, 2% dispersant MF, 1% UV protective agent ascorbic acid, talc powder 76%. The spore content of the WP is up to 3.76 billion CFU/g, the rate of mixed bacteria is 2.8%, the pH value is 7.8, the fineness is 98.2%, the drying loss is1.6%, the wetting time is 95.7 s, and the suspension rate is 80.7%. Pot experiment showed that seed-dressing with 1 to 3 kg/667 m2 of the WP was safe on potato seedling emergence, and had no adverse effects on potato growth. The control effect on potato Verticillium wilt ranged from 45.1% to 47.4%. Field plot experiments demonstrated that treatments with 1 to 3 kg/667 m2 of WP could significantly reduce the occurrence of potato scab, the control effect was 71.8% and the yield increase rate was 15.9% of treatment with 2 kg/667 m2 WP. Field trial demonstrations in different regions showed that the control efficacy of potato Verticillium wilt and potato scab was 50.8% to 62.1%, and 63.9% to 65.7%, respectively, with the treatment of 2 kg/667 m2 WP. Meanwhile, potato yields increased from 14.3% to 29.4%. The results indicated that 3 billion CFU/g Bacillus WP could effectively control potato soil-borne diseases, and significantly increase potato yield, providing a basis for the extensive application of WP in potato production.
Synthesis, herbicidal activity, crop safety and soil degradation of sulfonylamino-substituted chlorsulfuron
WU Lei, LI Yonghong, ZHOU Sha, LI Zhengming, WANG Zhongwen
 doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0051
[Abstract](40) [FullText HTML](11) [PDF 676KB](7)
Abstract:
Based on the splicing method of active substructures, four chlorsulfuron derivatives ( H01 - H04 ) were designed and synthesized by introducing different sulfonylamino groups on the 5-position of the benzene ring, which were confirmed with melting point, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS. The preliminary biological activity test results showed that the 5-sulfonylamino-substituted compounds exhibited good herbicidal activities. At concentration of 150 g/hm2, the inhibition rates against Brassica campestris of H01 , H02 and H04 were higher than 85% through pre-emergence treatment. In addition, the inhibition rates against Amaranthus tricolor of H01 was 100%, which were better than chlorsulfuron (68.8%). For post-emergence treatment, the inhibition rates of H04 on B. campestris and A. tricolor were equivalent to that of chlorsulfuron. And the inhibition rates of H04 on A. tricolor (85.5%) was better than that of chlorsulfuron (68.8%). The crop safety results indicated that the inhibition rates of these target compounds on the growth of wheat and corn were lower than that of chlrosulfuron. H01 and H04 showed safety to wheat growth through pre-emergence treatment. Additionally, the inhibition rates of H01 - H04 on corn were lower than chlorsulfuron. In the case of post-emergence treatment, H01 and H04 showed safety to corn. Alkaline soil (pH 8.39) degradation results indicated that the DT50 (half-life of degradation) values of H01 - H04 varied from 44.43 to 53.32 days, which was shorter than that of chlorsulfuron (157.53 days). Based on the results, H01 and H04 could be used as potential sulfonylurea herbicides on wheat and corn. This paper could provide a reference for the further design of new sulfonylurea herbicides with high herbicidal activity, rapid degradation rate and superior crop safety.
cover
2022, 24(5): 1-1.  
[Abstract](108) [FullText HTML](26) [PDF 2167KB](56)
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2022, 24(5): 1-1.  
[Abstract](104) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 913KB](37)
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2022, 24(5): 1-11.  
[Abstract](62) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 635KB](24)
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2022, 24(5): 1-1.  
[Abstract](59) [FullText HTML](25) [PDF 909KB](46)
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contents
2022, 24(5): 1-4.  
[Abstract](52) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 477KB](21)
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MONOGRAPHS AND REVIEWS
Discovery of fungicide flubeneteram
ZENG Lingqiang, LUO Ruitong, CHEN Qiong, HAO Gefei, ZHU Xiaolei, YANG Guangfu
2022, 24(5): 895-903.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0028
[Abstract](403) [FullText HTML](120) [PDF 1506KB](126)
Abstract:
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is one of the important fungicide targets. However, many plant pathogens showed medium and even high resistance to commercial fungicides targeting upon SDH. So, it is very urgent to design new novel inhibitor for SDH. Pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening (PFVS) is a high-throughput drug discovery approach independent of biophysical screening techniques and flubeneteram, a novel fungicide candidate targeting SDH, was successfully obtained by PFVS. Here, the development process of the fungicide flubeneteram was analyzed in detail, including the principle of PFVS, the discovery of lead compounds, the modification of substituents and the fungicidal activity. The discovery process of flubeneteram would provide novel ideas and methods for pesticide researchers.
Fungicide toxicity and its bioassy
ZHOU Mingguo
2022, 24(5): 904-920.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0107
[Abstract](150) [FullText HTML](33) [PDF 1056KB](104)
Abstract:
Fungitoxicity is the inherent biological characteristic of fungicide which reflects the activity, safety and effectiveness of the compound. It is a prerequisite for fungicide registration being approved by pesticide registration department and has important value for fungicide creation and rational evaluation. Here, the definition of terms related to fungicide toxicity was clarified and emphasized a series of factors that play important roles in the evaluation of fungicide toxicity, including modes of action of fungicides that have not yet been discovered and the effectiveness of disease epidemic control that which affected by the interaction of pathogen, host and environmental factors. Meanwhile, toxicological mechanisms that interfere with the function of target proteins and structural specificity and precision in the molecular interaction of compound and protein which was important to fungicide toxicological mechanism, were analyzed in depth. The methods of fungitoxicity determination and analysis were also reviewed. The fungitoxicity is an important indicator to measure the quality of fungicide for crop protection. A correct understanding of the concepts of fungitoxicity and its bioassay will be helpful to guide the scientific research of fungicide creation, formulation, application, mode of action and resistance.
Fungicide resistance and the management strategies
LIU Xili, MIAO Jianqiang, ZHANG Can
2022, 24(5): 921-936.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0109
[Abstract](124) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 2064KB](82)
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With the development and widespread use of modern highly active selective fungicides, fungicide resistance in different phytopathogens is becoming increasingly serious, which is one of the most concerned issues in the field of chemical protection of plant diseases. This paper clarified the definitions of terms related to fungicide resistance, overviewed the current situation of phytopathogen resistance to fungicides, and analyzed the causes of fungicide resistance from the perspectives of natural selection and induced mutation. Then, it summarized the factors influencing the prevalence of fungicide resistance, including the characteristics of pathogens, the types and mode of action of fungicides, and other factors. The content of fungicide resistance risk assessment, fungicide resistance mechanism, fungicide resistance evolution, and methods and technologies for routine and molecular detection of fungicide resistance were also reviewed. Finally, the goals and strategies for fungicide resistance management were further proposed, that is, according to the main influencing factors of the formation of fungicide-resistant pathogen populations, short-term and long-term strategies for fungicide resistance control should be designed in a targeted manner. In particular, it is necessary to further strengthen the risk assessment of new fungicdes and new control objects, develop fungicide resistance management strategies, and establish a re-evaluation mechanism. Clarifying the characteristics of fungicide resistance in plant pathogens and developing scientific and reasonable resistance management strategy will provide important reference value for the green control of plant diseases.
Research progress of the resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors
MAO Yushuai, DUAN Yabing, ZHOU Mingguo
2022, 24(5): 937-948.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0062
[Abstract](161) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 912KB](89)
Abstract:
Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs), targeting succinate dehydrogenase complex, have gradually become the third largest group of fungicides in the world after quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) and ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs). In recent years, the market share of SDHIs is increasing yearly, and new members are emerging, playing a vital role in the chemical control of plant diseases. However, due to the single action site of these fungicides, fungicide resistance has become a key scientific issue that restricts the development and scientific application of these fungicides. In this paper, the development, products, occurrence and development of resistance, molecular mechanism and application status of SDHIs were reviewed. Together with the latest research achievements from the author's laboratory, the research on target biology and application technology was summarized, to provide references for the innovation and application of higher activity SDHIs.
Research progress on the occurrence, damage and prevention of Fusarium crown rot caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum
LI Yiwen, LI Guixiang, HUANG Zhongqiao, MIAO Jianqiang, LIU Xili
2022, 24(5): 949-961.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0110
[Abstract](79) [FullText HTML](17) [PDF 2523KB](47)
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Fusarium crown rot (FCR) of wheat has become more and more serious in China in recent years, which not only threatens food security, but also has the potential threat of mycotoxin contamination, which endangers human and animal health. This paper summarizes the damage status of wheat crown rot and the dominant Fusarium spp. that cause the disease in different regions. It is clear that Fusarium pseudograminearum has gradually become the dominant pathogen of FCR in many major wheat producing areas in China. On this basis, the infection cycle and genetic diversity of F. pseudograminearum were further analyzed, revealing the serious occurrence of FCR and the accumulation of F. pseudograminearum in soil, agricultural measures and various environmental and climatic factors, especially drought environment is closely related. This paper also summarized the reported key proteins that regulate the pathogenicity of F. pseudograminearum, revealed the toxin production type of F. pseudograminearum, clarified the biochemical pathway of deoxynivalenol (DON) synthesis, effects of different fungicides on DON synthesis, and the mechanism by which fungicides stimulate or inhibit DON synthesis. With the purpose of "disease control and deoxynivalenol reduction", a variety of comprehensive prevention and control measures for coordinated disease prevention are proposed, which have important reference value for the realization of green prevention and control of FCR.
Research progress of insecticidal peptides: a review
YE Dexing, ZHOU Yuanlin, ZHANG Yimeng, IQBAL Chandni, YANG Xinling
2022, 24(5): 962-981.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0114
[Abstract](108) [FullText HTML](16) [PDF 3832KB](63)
Abstract:
Traditional insecticides have made remarkable contributions to pest control and crop harvest, but bring about some adverse impacts on environment due to their chemical properties and unreasonable use. Consequently, it is particularly urgent to discover pesticides with unique structure, excellent performance and green safety on the premise of ecological friendliness. Polypeptide is composed of multiple amino acids connected by peptide bonds, and also is an intermediate product of protein degradation and plays a significant role in the life process. In recent years, insecticidal peptides have become a rising star in the field of pesticides thanks to their novel mechanism, excellent activity and ideal environmental compatibility. This review mainly summarizes the research progress and application of insecticidal peptides from animals, plants and micro-organisms, and prospect for future research trends.
Advances in studies on the chemotaxis of root-knot nematodes
WANG Shuai, WEI Yuyang, ZHANG Xi, XIE Jia, HU Zhan, SUN Ranfeng
2022, 24(5): 982-996.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0090
[Abstract](49) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 3919KB](29)
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Allelochemical signaling substances released by host roots and rhizosphere microbes play an important role in the host-seeking, mate-searching, and danger escape of root-knot nematodes (RKNs). At present, in order to develop chemoattractants and repellents of plant and microbial sources, it is an international hotspot and frontier for nematologists to identify semiochemicals and related molecular targets in the pre-infection stage of RKNs. This review focused on the chemotaxis and allelochemicals of RKNs, including attractive and repellent compounds, and summarized the progress on Trojan horse mechanism and trapping formation of RKNs. Furthermore, the application of the chemotactic models, including the plate agar and its modified model, Pluronic gel model, and the sand/soil model, on the nematodes chemotaxis test were summarized. Finally, the significance and challenge of the research on RKNs chemotaxis were discussed, and research directions on RKNs chemotaxis in the future were prospected.
Research progress and application prospects on insect sex pheromone
WANG Liuyang, YANG Chaoxia, GUO Bingbo, SHE Dongmei, MEI Xiangdong, YANG Xinling, NING Jun
2022, 24(5): 997-1016.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0086
[Abstract](205) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 8114KB](74)
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Insect sex pheromones are trace chemicals generated and released by mature individuals, which seduce or stimulate opposite-sex individuals to mating. Due to trace characteristics, high efficiency, high sensitivity, harmlessness to natural enemies, and environmental friendliness, sex pheromone products have been widely used in pest quarantine and monitoring, mating disruption, and mass trapping. In recent years, the research on insect sex pheromones has been further developed along with the improvement of technology, diversity, and sensitivity of detection. Based on the extensive literature investigation, this review summarizes the biological research, structural characteristics, extraction, identification, synthesis, and application prospect of insect sex pheromones. It provides a technical reference and a theoretical basis for the research, development, and application of insect sex pheromones.
Trehalase structures and agriculture bioactivities of its inhibitors: a review
SHI Dongmei, JIANG Zhiyang, ZOU Xuejun, HUANG Jiaxing, DUAN Hongxia
2022, 24(5): 1017-1033.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0101
[Abstract](61) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 2879KB](37)
Abstract:
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that has a variety of biological functions in insects or fungi such as participating in energy metabolism, recovery from stress, and chitin synthesis. Trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) has become a safe candidate target for the development of novel agrochemicals due to its important roles in regulating the metabolism and the content of trehalose, as well as its functional differences between pests and mammals. In this review, the crystal structures of trehalase and its interaction mechanism with inhibitors are summarized. Meanwhile, the research progress of trehalase inhibitors in agriculture is overviewed including validamycin, natural products salbostatin and trehazolin, deoxynojirimycin, natural alkaloids, piperine, and their corresponding synthetic analogues. In addition, the application of piperine-based compounds in the control of plant diseases or pests is highlighted. This review would provide a reference for the design and the discovery of novel piperine-based agrochemicals targeting the structure of trehalase.
Research progress in target dose transfer and regulation of pesticides deposition by foliar spray diluted with water
ZHENG Li, CHENG Xuejian, HUANG Guizhen, ZHAO Pengyue, CAO Chong, CAO Lidong, WU Jinlong, HUANG Xiuzhu, HUANG Qiliang
2022, 24(5): 1034-1048.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0084
[Abstract](103) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 1439KB](52)
Abstract:
Target dose transfer of pesticide deposition by foliar spray diluted with water is a complex process, involving formation preparation, dilution with water, atomization, spatial dispersion, foliar deposition, and retention. Because of the influence of many factors, such as physicochemical properties of pesticides, environmental factors, damage rules, foliar structure, and so on, the target deposition rate is 40.6% on the three major food crops rice, wheat, and corn. One of the main reasons for the low dose transfer efficiency of pesticides to target is the lack of research and comprehension of the loss law and efficient utilization mechanism of pesticides in different regions and target crop cropping systems. Based on the dose transfer process of pesticides to target crops and pests, the target dose transfer of pesticides deposition by foliar spray diluted with water is considered as droplet spatial dispersion, foliar dynamic deposition, and steady-state retention according to the time sequence. The advances in loss phenomena and behavior, rules and mechanism, regulatory approaches, and methods from each dose transfer step were reviewed from the spatial dimension. From the perspective of technological development and progress, the development of research and cognition on dose transfer and the regulation of pesticide to target deposition was analyzed, the typical representative results were summarized, and suggestions for future research and development were proposed. It is expected to objectively recognize the achievements of dose transfer and regulation of pesticides on target deposition. More attention should be paid to researching the loss rules of pesticide efficient transfer and deposition to targets, exploring the main control process and influencing factors, and revealing the mechanism of efficient utilization and regulation. The regulation methods, technical parameters, and application limit standards of functional surfactants were put forward. This review provides theoretical and technical support for the development of key technology and product that can reduce the application and increase the efficiency of pesticides.
Research progress of functionalized carriers in improving the pesticide retention on crop leaves
ZHAO Kefei, WU Tianyue, MA Yue, LI Zilu, GAO Yuxia, DU Fengpei
2022, 24(5): 1049-1064.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0061
[Abstract](106) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 4538KB](51)
Abstract:
Retention, a crucial process in pesticide delivery, is closely related to pesticide utilization efficiency and environmental safety. In China, the heavy loss of pesticides in the interface transfer process is a key factor, leading to a low pesticide utilization efficiency. Therefore, a scientific and reasonable way to increase the target deposition efficiency of pesticides is of great significance and is also a major technological issue of the current agricultural development. According to the occurrence, characteristics, and environmental conditions of pests, a variety of efficient, safe, and economical multifunctional pesticide carriers emerged. Such functionalized pesticide carriers can not only regulate the continuous release of pesticides and extend their periods but also improve their retention on crop leaves, which is an important way to improve the effectiveness and safety of pesticides. Thus, the research progress on multifunctional pesticide carriers for the efficient target deposition is reviewed from two key factors: the chemical composition and micro-nano structure of crop leaves. The synthesis method, topological morphology, release performance, foliar retention, and target biological activity of the functionalized carriers have been reviewed. It includes modifying the carrier surface with functional materials (dopamine, tannic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, polylactic acid, etc.), which enhances the non-covalent interaction between pesticides and crop leaves, or constructs carriers with special topologies (fiber-shaped, network type, hat-shaped, etc.) reducing pesticide loss through the size effect between carriers and crop leaves during the interface transfer process, and eventually improving the dosage release efficiency and foliar deposition performance. In addition, the existing problems and application prospects were also analyzed for the further improvement of pesticide utilization efficiency.
Research and development of atomization, deposition and drift of pesticide droplets
WANG Xiaonan, QI Peng, YU Congwei, HE Xiongkui
2022, 24(5): 1065-1079.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0111
[Abstract](82) [FullText HTML](25) [PDF 2450KB](50)
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Pesticides, plant protection machinery and application technology are the three pillars of plant chemical protection, of which application technology is the key link between pesticides and plant protection machinery. It is the "last mile" from pesticide research to field application. The scientific use of pesticides is not a simple pharmacological problem of pesticide selection and application dosage, but involves plant protection, agricultural mechanics, meteorology and other disciplines, forming an interdisciplinary combination of systemic engineering. This paper presents a review of pesticide droplet atomization and movement characteristics, deposition and distribution status, loss and drift behavior, and the relationship between pest behavior and pesticide droplet atomization movement and deposition distribution. The purpose of summarizing the theoretical and practical experiences in these areas is to improve the standards and quality of plant protection machinery, pesticide utilization, control effects and food safety, as well as reducing the negative impacts of pesticides. In addition, these theories and practices provide technical methods and equipment support to improve the quality and efficiency of crops and to protect agroecological and human environments.
Refinement and functionalization of pesticide formulation research and development and efficient utilization in agricultural production
MA Yingjian, ZHEN Shuo, SUN Zhe, YU Meng, ZHAO Rui, GUO Xinyu, XU Yong, WU Xuemin
2022, 24(5): 1080-1098.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0115
[Abstract](100) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 7371KB](63)
Abstract:
As the final use form of pesticides, the quality and performance of pesticide formulations play a crucial role in the efficacy and efficient utilization of pesticides. In recent years, the innovation of pesticide formulations in China has been promoted with the improvement of people's awareness of environmental protection and the development of scientific and technological levels, and the constant changes in the types and occurrence regulation of harmful organisms, planting structure, plant protection strategy, land intensification and labor structure. Some new theories, formulations, processing technologies, characterization methods and application methods have emerged one after another, the refinement, functionalization and efficient utilization have become the main development directions of pesticide formulation. In this paper, we have made a comprehensive introduction to the development of pesticide formulation in our country from the aspects of refined development and functional development of pesticide formulation processing, and the promotion of pesticide formulation innovation by agricultural production needs. And we analyzed the problems to be solved and the future development direction, which provided a reference for the development of green and efficient functionalized pesticide formulations.
Advance research on artificial intelligence based precision pesticide application
ZHOU Changjian, SONG Jia, XIANG Wensheng
2022, 24(5): 1099-1107.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0069
[Abstract](90) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 1116KB](38)
Abstract:
Traditional pesticide application mostly relies on artificial experience to identify the main diseases, pests, and weeds of crops in the unit planting area, and spray pesticides uniformly and continuously. This approach is difficult to adjust the usage and dosage of pesticides in time according to the types and severity of diseases, pests, and weeds, which may lead to insufficient or excessive use. Pesticides sprayed on non-symptom areas will also cause pollution to the ecological environment. Precision pesticide application technology provides an effective solution to balance the use of pesticides and the protection of ecological security, which is worth promoting. In recent years, artificial intelligence has achieved fruitful achievements in the fields of precision pesticide application, which has promoted the development of precision pesticide application. In order to further summarize the application progress of artificial intelligence in key technologies of precision pesticide application and explore the future development direction of artificial intelligence in precision pesticide application, this paper analyzes the application progress of artificial intelligence in the key technical fields and points out the future trend of artificial intelligence in precision pesticide application.
Research progress on the stereoselective bioactivity and toxicity of chiral pesticides
GUO Haoming, WEI Yimu, LIU Xueke, LIU Donghui, WANG Peng, ZHOU Zhiqiang
2022, 24(5): 1108-1124.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0108
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 1159KB](66)
Abstract:
Chiral pesticides have attracted much attention due to enantiomeric differences in biological activity, toxicity and environmental behavior. It is significant to understand the stereoselectivity of enantiomers for developing highly active pesticides and reducing dosage. This review focus on the stereoselective effects of enantiomers of chiral pesticides, thoroughly investigated the enantioselective biological activitiy and toxicity selectivity, and sort it out, the bioactivity, toxicity and environmental risk of enantiomers of chiral pesticides were reviewed. This review described the chronic toxicity of chiral pesticides to non-target organisms, such as oxidative stress and endocrine disruption, and pay attention to the rules and mechanisms of stereoselectivity, in order to provide reference for the development of environmentally friendly and efficient chiral pesticides, the risk assessment and management of chiral pesticides, and the stereoselectivity mechanism of chiral pesticides.
Research progress of the effects and toxicology mechanisms of pesticides on bees
ZHANG Wei, QI Suzhen, XUE Xiaofeng, QIU Lihong
2022, 24(5): 1125-1138.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0099
[Abstract](131) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 1235KB](64)
Abstract:
Pesticides play an active role in modern agricultural production. However, irrational application of pesticides may cause a negative impact on important pollinating bees. This paper mainly reviewed the research progress on the acute toxicity of pesticides to bees, the sub-lethal effects of pesticides on the growth, development, and behavior of bees, the combined effect of pesticides on bees, as well as the interaction between neonicotinoid insecticides and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of bees, mechanisms of differential toxicity of pesticide to bees, effects of pesticides on detoxification-related enzyme activity and other physiological and biochemical indexes of bees, and the role of phytochemicals in regulating the tolerance of bees to pesticides. The main purpose of this review is to provide a reference for the rational use of pesticides and improve the safety of pesticides to bees.
RESEARCH REPORTS
Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel pyrazole-quinazoline-2,4-diones as 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors
YAN Yaochao, WANG Ya'nan, HE Bo, QU Renyu, NAN Jiaxu, LIN Hongyan, YANG Guangfu
2022, 24(5): 1139-1151.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0089
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 2340KB](39)
Abstract:
In recent years, inhibitors targeting 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) have become the hot research in the field of herbicide due to their high activity and low risk of resistance. Quinazoline-2,4-dione has been proved to be a potent scaffold. To further exploit its advantage, 30 novel pyrazole-quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the previous work and existing structure-activity relationship, all the structure of which were determined by HRMS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated. The result indicated that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited comparable or even better enzyme inhibitory activity than that of the positive control benquitrione. The greenhouse herbicidal activity experiments revealed that the tested compounds showed growth inhibition against the six tested weeds, especially for compound 9-28 , which achieved more than 80% inhibition against the six species of target weeds at the dosage of 150 g/hm2 and 100% inhibition against Echinochloa crus-galli and Digitaria sanguinalis. Furthermore, the AtHPPD- 9-28 complex was obtained, which explained the binding mode between the inhibitor and target enzyme, and brought a novel thought to facilitate a detailed understanding for the discovery of new HPPD inhibitors with improved performance.
Synthesis and fungicidal activities of spirocyclic butenolide derivatives containing fused heterocyclic moiety
LI Yihao, XU Leichuan, ZHANG Qian, MA Haoyun, AN Xinkun, WANG Mingan
2022, 24(5): 1152-1161.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0077
[Abstract](81) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 1079KB](39)
Abstract:
In order to find compounds with higher fungicidal activity and analyze the structure-activity relationship of spirocyclic butenolide compounds, a series of novel spirocyclic butenolide derivatives containing fused heterocyclic moiety such as imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-5(6H)-one, imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazin-3(2H)-one and imidazo [2,1-b][1,3]thiazine-3,6(2H,7H)-dione were designed and synthesized using spirocyclic butenolide as the orientation structure. Their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS spectral data. The in vitro fungicidal activity evaluation results showed that the EC50 values of compounds 5f and 6f against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were 33.2 and 29.8 mg/L, respectively, which were better than that of the commercial fungicide fenamidone (46.8 mg/L). While the EC50 values of compounds 7b and 7e against Phytophthora capsici were 45.8 and 43.5 mg/L, which were also better than that of fenamidone (50.7 mg/L). Comparison with lead compounds, their fungicidal activities were higher than that of 2-methylthio analogues and lower than that of 2-arylamino analogues, which indicated that introduction of the fused heterocyclic moiety can improve the fungicidal activities, and the NH group in the structure play a key role in the fungicidal activity.
Design, synthesis, antifungal activities and binding mode with succinate dehydrogenase receptor of quinazolinone oxime ether derivatives
WANG Jinling, LI Zhong
2022, 24(5): 1162-1170.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0067
[Abstract](92) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 1090KB](28)
Abstract:
In order to discover novel compounds with high fungicidal activities, fluopyram was used as a control, based on the previous discovery of a novel nitromethylquinazolinone skeleton, 25 novel quinazolinone oxime ether derivatives were designed and synthesized by intermediate derivatization and sub-structural combination methods. Their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HR-EI-MS spectral data. The preliminary in vivo antifungal evaluation results showed that compounds A19 and A25 were 43.74% and 42.46% control Fusarium graminearum at a concentration of 500 mg/L, respectively. However, the antifungal activities were much lower than that of fluopyram. The differences in physicochemical properties and binding mode with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) receptor between these compounds and fluopyram may be the major factor which reduced the antifungal activities.
Dual-targeted natural product inhibitors of Ostrinia furnacalis chitinases and inhibitory mechanisms
HE Danchan, JIANG Xi, YANG Qing
2022, 24(5): 1171-1178.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0044
[Abstract](94) [FullText HTML](27) [PDF 1665KB](19)
Abstract:
Multiple chitinases are required for effective hydrolysis of insect epidermal chitin and play an indispensable role in insect molting. As chitin is absent in plants and mammals, these enzymes can be potential targets for the design of green insecticides. In this paper, three dual-target inhibitors against the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis)-derived chitinases OfChtI and OfChi-h, anacardic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and shionone, were obtained through high-throughput screening of 1680 natural products. The respective Ki values for OfChtI are 0.57, 0.53 and 3.95 μmol/L, and are 0.48, 1.42 and 27.33 μmol/L for OfChi-h. The molecular docking results showed that all three inhibitors were bound to the substrate-binding sites of the target enzymes through hydrophobic stacking interaction. In addition, the 1-carboxyl oxygen atom of anacardic acid, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, formed hydrogen bonds with guanidine hydrogen atoms of Arg274 side chain in OfChtI and Arg439 side chain in OfChi-h, respectively. The carbonyl and etheryl oxygen atoms of DEHP, as hydrogen bond receptors, formed hydrogen bonds with hydrogen atoms of Arg274 guanidine group side chain in OfChtI; the etheryl oxygen atom of DEHP, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, formed hydrogen bond with guanidine hydrogen atom of Arg439 side chain in OfChi-h. The insecticidal activity was determined to be 33.3% for anacardic acid and DEHP at 2 mmol/L, while shionone showed no obvious insecticidal activity. This study may provide a clue for the development of novel green pesticides targeting multiple chitinases simultaneously.
Design, synthesis, bioactivities of novel geranyl 2-alkoxy-substitutedbenzoate as aphid alarm pheromone derivatives
QIN Yaoguo, YANG Zhaokai, ZHANG Yihan, ZHOU Yubei, PAN Shixiang, LIU Yan, SHI Zhuo, YANG Xinling
2022, 24(5): 1179-1188.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0103
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 1340KB](18)
Abstract:
In order to discover aphid behavioral control agents with new structures, 15 novel geranyl 2-alkoxy-substitutedbenzoate aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-Farnesene (EβF) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using the method of linking active substructures based on the lead compound 3e (geranyl 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate). The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and HRMS. Preliminary bioassay results showed that some target compounds had varied repellent activity against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at the dosage of 5 µg. Among them, the compound 6i exhibited the highest repellent proportion of 60.9%, which was not significantly different from that of the lead 3e . The target protein binding experiments showed that some target compounds had good binding activities with the odorant binding proteins of ApisOBP9. Particularly, compound 6i displayed the best binding constant of (4.92±0.18) µmol/L with ApisOBP9. Further molecular docking study revealed that the representative compound 6i had a good binding affinity to the ApisOBP9, wherein it had the similar binding mode with ApisOBP9 like 3e . This study provides important clues for the further structure optimization.
Synthesis and antifungal activity of coumarin oxime esters
YUAN Hanxiao, ZHANG Wenguang, LIU Hanru, ZHANG Yuntian, ZHANG Caixia, GUO Ziyi, GAO Yanqing, LEI Peng, LIU Xili
2022, 24(5): 1189-1195.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0078
[Abstract](115) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 1331KB](38)
Abstract:
In order to discover high antifungal activity oxime esters compound, based on our previous studies, 18 novel coumarin oxime esters were designed and synthesized. The antifungal activity was evaluated and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed. The in vitro bioassay results showed that the target compounds showed antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Valsa mali and Rhizoctonia solani. Especially, compound 4n displayed excellent activity against B. cinerea (EC50 = 4.44 μg/mL) and R. solani (EC50 = 3.65 μg/mL), which are better than or similar to those of coumarin and trifloxystrobin.
Effects of five functional analogues of abscisic acid on improving salt stress tolerance of wheat and their mechanism
LIU Guanyuan, LI Xiaobin, XIAO Yumei, CHE Chuanliang, TANG Xianjun, DING Shanshan, XU Yanjun, QIN Zhaohai
2022, 24(5): 1196-1205.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0080
[Abstract](48) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 2054KB](14)
Abstract:
Soil salinization is one of the abiotic stress factors that reduce crop yield and exerts a serious impact on wheat seed germination and seedling growth. In this paper, "Luyuan 502" wheat was employed as the material, and the effects of five functional analogues of abscisic acid (ABA) on improving the salt tolerance of the seedlings were studied by hydroponics. The results showed that five functional analogues could significantly promote the growth of wheat seedlings under 300 mmol/L NaCl stress, among which TFQB, TFTQB, and natenpac (NA) performed better. NA and TFTQB treatment greatly promoted the root growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress by increasing root length, root surface area, and root volume, thus enhancing the water absorption capacity of wheat seedling roots. All five ABA functional analogues could increase the photosynthetic effect, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmotic adjustment substance accumulation, and decrease cell membrane damage of wheat seedlings under salt stress. NA treatment alleviated the decrease of Fv/Fm and maintained the concentration of intercellular CO2, which is superior to QB and its analogues. Except for IQB, the other four compounds significantly reduced the content of malondialdehyde, and endogenous IAA, but increased endogenous ABA content. NA exhibited a more predominant effect than QB analogues in stimulating ABA signaling pathway against salt stress. Overall, this study is theoretically significant for revealing the action mechanism of ABA functional analogues, and also provides potential application values of ABA functional analogues for improving the salt tolerance of wheat.
Application of comb-type fluorocarbon polymer surfactant in the development of nitrosulfonone suspension concentrate
ZHANG Jingjing, ZENG Mengdie, SONG Lingyun, KOU Junjie, SONG Hongjian, LIU Yuxiu, WANG Qingmin
2022, 24(5): 1206-1214.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0076
[Abstract](48) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 3219KB](11)
Abstract:
In order to explore the application of new comb-type fluorine-containing polymer surfactants in the development of nitrosulfonone suspension concentrate, 25% nitrosulfonone suspension concentrates with different dispersants were prepared by taking such surfactants b1 and b9 as dispersants and commercial dispersant YUS-FS3000 as control. The physicochemical properties such as suspensibility, nominal size, dispersibility in water, and stability, biological activity in a greenhouse, and the effect of the addition amount of dispersant b1 on the above properties were measured respectively. The results showed that the active ingredient content was 25.52%-26.98% under the three conditions of 54 ℃, 0 ℃, and −18 ℃ for 14 days, which was qualified under the three conditions. At the same time, the suspensibility was higher than 98.0% under three storage conditions, and the suspension concentrate prepared by b1 was better than that by YUS-FS3000 as dispersant. Even if the addition amount (mass fraction) of b1 was 2%, the active ingredient content was between 25.62% and 26.01% after being stored for 14 days under three conditions. At the same time, the suspensibility was higher than 99.0% under three storage conditions. The GR50 (50% growth reduction) values of 25% mesotrione aqueous suspension concentrate prepared by these three dispersants on Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv were 29.03 (YUS-FS3000), 15.70 ( b1 ) and 10.19 ( b9 ) g (a.i.)/hm2, respectively.
Preparation of abamectin nanocapsule suspension concentrate by electrostatic self-assembly and its control efficacy on cucumber root-knot nematode
WANG Rui, ZHANG Tao, HAN Zhiren, JIN Yan, ZHANG Daxia, LI Beixing, LIU Feng
2022, 24(5): 1215-1223.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0018
[Abstract](56) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 2118KB](20)
Abstract:
To improve the mobility of abamectin in soil and its effect on controlling crop root-knot nematode, abamectin 3% nanocapsule suspension concentrate was prepared by electrostatic self-assembly method, and the storage stability and release performance were measured. The soil mobility of nanocapsules was evaluated by soil leaching test and soil thin-layer chromatography. The toxicity against the second-stage juvenile (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita and field application effect was investigated. The average particle size (D50) of abamectin nanocapsules was 276.81 nm. In the release solution, the cumulative release was 57.59% at 60 min, whereas that of abamectin 3% EC was 94.53%. The horizontal and vertical movement distance of abamectin nanocapsule suspension concentrate in soil was significantly greater than that of abamectin 3% EC. The LC50 value of abamectin nanocapsule suspension concentrate and EC against the J2 of root-knot nematodes at 24 h were 0.257 and 0.427 mg/L, respectively. Under the same pesticide usage, the control efficacy of abamectin 3% nanocapsule suspension concentrate using flood irrigation and soil mixing methods were 21.82% and 4.81% respectively, which were higher than that of abamectin 3% EC at 60 days after treatments. The control efficacy of abamectin 3% nanocapsule suspension concentrate were 28.98% and 19.79% higher than that of abamectin 3% EC at 100 days after treatment using flood irrigation and soil mixing methods, respectively. Therefore, abamectin nano-formulations can enhance its mobility in soil and improve the control effect on cucumber root-knot nematode. This study provides a reference for the development of nano-pesticide preparations suitable for soil application.
Preparation, properties and safety evaluation of mesoporous silica particles loaded with prochloraz
HOU Chaoqun, CHEN Wang, LV Ze, WEI Nuo, SUN Li, MENG Xiaohan, FENG Jianguo
2022, 24(5): 1224-1235.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0104
[Abstract](52) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 2445KB](18)
Abstract:
Mesoporous silica particles (MSNs) can be used as carriers to prepare pesticides controlled release formulations with high drug loading, thus reducing pesticide use and protecting the ecological environment. In this study, mesoporous silica particles loaded with prochloraz (prochloraz@MSNs) were prepared using the one-pot method. Their morphology, drug loading rate, release behavior, antibacterial activity and safety to non-target organisms were systematically studied. The results show that the prepared prochloraz@MSNs had a regular spherical shape and uniform particle size, with an average particle size of about 240 nm and a drug loading rate of 40.6%. The release rate was related to pH and temperature, and acid, alkaline and high-temperature conditions facilitated pesticide release. Compared with emulsifiable concentrate (EC), prochloraz@MSNs had better control effects on Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusahum graminearum, with prolonged effective duration. Prochloraz@MSNs also had low toxicity to zebrafish, earthworm and human BEAS-2B cells. Therefore, prochloraz@MSNs has great potential as an efficient, low toxic and safe pesticide formulation for sustainable management of plant diseases.
Study on seed pelleting and performance of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)
MA Yingjian, CHEN Luoyun, ZANG Jiqiang, DUAN Jingbo, ZHAO Jiaxiang, GUO Xinyu, XU Yong, WU Xuemin
2022, 24(5): 1236-1247.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0083
[Abstract](61) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 4000KB](16)
Abstract:
Seed pelleting is among the important types of seed coating. Compared with conventional seed coating, seed pelletization not only changes the seed shape and standardizes the seed appearance but also carries a larger amount of active ingredients with better compatibility. In this study, the irregular welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) seeds were pelletized, the performances of different fillers and binders for seed pellet granulation were investigated, and the microstructures of the prepared pellets with the optimized formulations were characterized. The results showed that the application of magnesium stearate mixed with talcum powder at a mass ratio of 1 : 2 as a filter and 1% CMC solution as a binder was favorable for the pelletizing of welsh onion seeds. The pelleted seeds were qualified in all indexes and met the standards of seed pelletization. The SEM observations of microstructures showed that there are significant differences among the pellets prepared by different fillers, and the tighter the bonding between fillers, the greater the strength of the pellets. The quality assessment of the pelletized seeds with pesticides showed that the reasonable addition of appropriate pesticides had little effect on seed germination. This study enriches the basic theory of seed pelleting via the combined evaluation of macroscopic properties and microstructures and provides a useful guideline for the improvements of precision sowing and standardized planting.
Physiological effects of maize with mesotrione using fluorescence spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis technique
GAO Qian, CHEN Panpan, WANG Yi
2022, 24(5): 1248-1258.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0098
[Abstract](51) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 3110KB](14)
Abstract:
To clarify the physiological effect of mesotrione stress on maize and its use safety in a maize field, the effects of different concentrations of mesotrione on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves, fresh weights of roots, stems, and leaves, and fluorescence substances in root exudates of maize were studied using UV visible absorption spectrum, synchronous fluorescence spectrum, three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum, and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-COS) technique. The results showed that the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves and the fresh weights of roots, stems, and leaves of maize were significantly decreased after 10 and 14 d of stress with 5 and 10 mg/L mesotrione. The analysis of synchronous fluorescence spectrum, three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum, and 2D-COS technology revealed that the fluorescence intensity of protein-like and humus-like substances in the root exudates of maize had changed significantly, and the above changes were more notable with the increase of the concentration of mesotrione and the prolongation of the stress time. However, the intensity of the protein-like fluorescent peak at 225-235 nm was enhanced at 7, 10, and 14 d of stress. Combined with 2D-COS analysis, it was found that the protein-like fluorescent group at 280-325 nm exhibits preference binding to mesotrione. The results showed that when the concentration of mesotrione is higher than 5 mg/L, the normal growth of maize would be adversely affected after 10 d of stress. The research results can provide a theoretical basis for evaluating the safety of mesotrione on maize.
Cerium ion (Ce3+) and pyrophosphate ion coordination polymer networks for the rapid fluorometric detection of glyphosate
ZHANG Qiang, WANG Dongwei, JIANG Jiangong, LIU Xueke, LIU Donghui, ZHOU Zhiqiang
2022, 24(5): 1259-1267.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0045
[Abstract](127) [FullText HTML](45) [PDF 1651KB](17)
Abstract:
A rapid fluorometric method was established to detect glyphosate by using cerium ion and pyrophosphate ion (Ce-PPi) coordination polymer networks (CPNs). Based on coordination of cerium ion (Ce3+) and pyrophosphate ion (PPi), fluorescent Ce-PPi CPNs were synthesized by simple self-assemble process, and the structure and properties were characterized. Upon introducing glyphosate, the ligand field effect of PPi with Ce3+ was weakened resulting in a decrease in fluorescence of Ce-PPi CPNs. Based on this principle, the quantitative detection of glyphosate was achieved by optimizing the conditions, with R2 of 0.9972 and the detection limit of 0.014 μmol/L. The established method based on Ce-PPi CPNs possessed outstanding sensitivity and exclusive selectivity for rapid detction of glyphosate, and could be used for the detection of glyphosate in tap water and apple samples. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.05 mg/kg and the recoveries were between 77% and 87%. The method provided a potential choice for the rapid, on-site and real-time, detection of glyphosate.
Determination of 11 pesticides residues in grass carp using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry coupled with pass-through clean-up column
FENG Tengwang, WANG Xinxin, ZHOU Ruidong, LIU Huan, SUN Huiwu, LI Jincheng
2022, 24(5): 1268-1277.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0097
[Abstract](28) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 1581KB](8)
Abstract:
A method was established for determination of 11 pesticide residues in grass carp sample based on cheap analytical filtration syringe (CAFS) clean-up column coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS). Using acetonitrile as extraction solvent, the sample was ultrasonic, frozen and centrifuged, and the supernatant was quickly purified once by CAFS clean-up column with 50 mg PSA. After separated by UPLC, the analytes were determined by QTRAP-MS/MS. Matrix-matched calibration curves and the external standard method was employed for quantification. The results showed that the linear relationships of the 11 pesticides were good within 1.0-50.0 μg/kg, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. The limit of quantification were 1.0-2.0 μg/kg. The recoveries of 11 pesticides at different spiking levels were 83%-119%, and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were 2.6%-20% and 0.7%-15%, respectively. The method is economical, simple, efficient, sensitive and reproducible, and could be used as a routine method for the detection of pesticide residues in grass carp.
Effects of micro-plastics on stereoselective degradation behavior of mefentrifluconazole in paddy environment
JIN Yinyin, LI Chenchen, ZHU Yunlong, LI Zongjie, LIU Yanxia, FU Kang, CHAI Tingting, CUI Feng
2022, 24(5): 1278-1286.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2022.0113
[Abstract](43) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 1618KB](17)
Abstract:
To investigate the enantioselective behavior of mefentrifluconazole (MFZ) in paddy environment under field conditions, the residue analytical methods of the two MFZ enantiomers in dpaddy plants, roots, soil and field water were established based on HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, the effect of micro-plastics on the enantioselective behavior and degradation of MFZ was also investigated by paddy-pot experiment. The results showed that: the MFZ enantiomers were completely separated on the Chiralpak IG chiral column, and there was a good linear relationship between the peak area of the enantiomers and the corresponding mass concentration in the range of 0.0005-0.1 mg/L (R2 was greater than 0.999). The average recoveries in the four matrixs were 76%-108% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 1.3%-12%. The paddy-pot experiment showed that there were no significant enantioselectivity difference in the degradation of MFZ in all the four matrices (P>0.05). The micro-plastics had no significant effect on the enantioselective behavior of MFZ in the paddy environment (P>0.05), however micro-plastics significantly prolonged the half-life of the MFZ in paddy water and rice plant. The half-life of R-MFZ and S-MFZ were prolonged from 6.7 and 6.7 d to 11.6 and 11.7 d in paddy water, while in rice plant it was extended from 7.5 and 7.4 d to 11.7 and 11.6 d, respectively. The results of this study provided the insight for the rational use of MFZ in the paddy environment.
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Research progresses on the metabolic mechanisms of organophosphate insecticides
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Preliminary studies on synergism and mechanisms of six organosilicon additives on fomesafen
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Mechanism of insect metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides
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Synergism of six spray adjuvants on mesotrione in controlling Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus
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2015, 17(3): 348-356.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2015.03.15
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Development and evaluation of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay for residue detection of three organophosphorus pesticides
ZOU Rubing, LIU Ying, WANG Shuangjie, ZHANG Ya, GUO Yirong, ZHU Guonian
2017, 19(1): 37-45.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2017.0006
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Research progress and prospects of microbial pesticide formulation for plant disease control
LIU Zhenhua, LUO Yuanchan, ZHANG Daojing, LI Yuanguang
2014, 16(5): 497-507.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-7303.2014.05.02
[Abstract](4370) [PDF 1299KB](813)
Matrix effects in pesticide residue analysis in various vegetable samples
ZHANG Yuanyuan, LIU Lei, LI Na, LI Hui, LU Na, GUO Yongze, ZHANG Yuting
2019, 21(3): 327-337.   doi: 10.16801/j.issn.1008-7303.2019.0040
[Abstract](1195) [FullText HTML](176) [PDF 1081KB](88)